This paper is devoted to a survey of results obtained while investigating the growth processes of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on different substrates using iron as the catalyst and CO as the carbon source. Three different approaches to the substrate coating by the catalyst are discussed: sputtering metallization and particle synthesis using the hot-wire generator and its ex situ and in situ deposition. The possibility of growing ultralong one- and double-walled thick nanotubes and CNT flow alignment are demonstrated. The influence of the diameter of single-wall CNTs on their deformation on the substrate surface is studied. The possibility of controlling the number of CNT walls depending on the experimental conditions is demonstrated. The role of etching agents during CNT synthesis is discussed.