Morphology of ferromagnetic sol-gel submicron silica powders doped with iron and nickel particles

Outi Söderberg (Corresponding Author), Y. Ge, Eero Haimi, Oleg Heczko, M. Oja, J. Laine, Tomi Suhonen, A. Aaltonen, K. Kalliokaari, B. Borak, M. Jasiorski, A. Baszczuk, K. Maruszewski, Simo-Pekka Hannula

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Abstract

The sol–gel submicron spherical silica particles were obtained with the modified Stöber method using methanol. Iron and nickel dopants produced by the exploding wire method were introduced to the SiO2 powders during the sol–gel process. The electron microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analyzer studies showed that the hybrid powders agglomerated easily in ethanol. The difference of ζ-potential in pure water between the pure silica (− 46.8 mV), the Fe-doped (− 39.7 mV) and the Ni-doped silica (− 41.5 mV) proved that doping changes the surface properties. The SEM studies confirmed that the Ni-particles could attach to the surface of the silica shells. With TEM it has been found that the differently sized Ni-particles may be encapsulated in silica shells, form clusters within silica or they may remain separate if they were larger than the silica particles. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic hybrid powders was 0.81 emu/g (Fe-doped) and 0.51 emu/g (Ni-doped), while the hysteresis of magnetization revealed that the magnetic particles may have close to a single domain structure. The magnetization values and the X-ray studies confirmed that some Fe-oxides of the initial doping powder remained in the hybrid powder, while the Ni applied was nearly totally metallic.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3171-3173
JournalMaterials Letters
Volume61
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

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Silica Gel
silica gel
Nickel
Silicon Dioxide
Powders
Sol-gels
Iron
Silica
nickel
silicon dioxide
iron
Doping (additives)
magnetization
Magnetization
Exploding wires
exploding wires
Saturation magnetization
Oxides
surface properties
Electron microscopy

Cite this

Söderberg, O., Ge, Y., Haimi, E., Heczko, O., Oja, M., Laine, J., ... Hannula, S-P. (2007). Morphology of ferromagnetic sol-gel submicron silica powders doped with iron and nickel particles. Materials Letters, 61, 3171-3173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2006.11.015
Söderberg, Outi ; Ge, Y. ; Haimi, Eero ; Heczko, Oleg ; Oja, M. ; Laine, J. ; Suhonen, Tomi ; Aaltonen, A. ; Kalliokaari, K. ; Borak, B. ; Jasiorski, M. ; Baszczuk, A. ; Maruszewski, K. ; Hannula, Simo-Pekka. / Morphology of ferromagnetic sol-gel submicron silica powders doped with iron and nickel particles. In: Materials Letters. 2007 ; Vol. 61. pp. 3171-3173.
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abstract = "The sol–gel submicron spherical silica particles were obtained with the modified St{\"o}ber method using methanol. Iron and nickel dopants produced by the exploding wire method were introduced to the SiO2 powders during the sol–gel process. The electron microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analyzer studies showed that the hybrid powders agglomerated easily in ethanol. The difference of ζ-potential in pure water between the pure silica (− 46.8 mV), the Fe-doped (− 39.7 mV) and the Ni-doped silica (− 41.5 mV) proved that doping changes the surface properties. The SEM studies confirmed that the Ni-particles could attach to the surface of the silica shells. With TEM it has been found that the differently sized Ni-particles may be encapsulated in silica shells, form clusters within silica or they may remain separate if they were larger than the silica particles. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic hybrid powders was 0.81 emu/g (Fe-doped) and 0.51 emu/g (Ni-doped), while the hysteresis of magnetization revealed that the magnetic particles may have close to a single domain structure. The magnetization values and the X-ray studies confirmed that some Fe-oxides of the initial doping powder remained in the hybrid powder, while the Ni applied was nearly totally metallic.",
author = "Outi S{\"o}derberg and Y. Ge and Eero Haimi and Oleg Heczko and M. Oja and J. Laine and Tomi Suhonen and A. Aaltonen and K. Kalliokaari and B. Borak and M. Jasiorski and A. Baszczuk and K. Maruszewski and Simo-Pekka Hannula",
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Söderberg, O, Ge, Y, Haimi, E, Heczko, O, Oja, M, Laine, J, Suhonen, T, Aaltonen, A, Kalliokaari, K, Borak, B, Jasiorski, M, Baszczuk, A, Maruszewski, K & Hannula, S-P 2007, 'Morphology of ferromagnetic sol-gel submicron silica powders doped with iron and nickel particles', Materials Letters, vol. 61, pp. 3171-3173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matlet.2006.11.015

Morphology of ferromagnetic sol-gel submicron silica powders doped with iron and nickel particles. / Söderberg, Outi (Corresponding Author); Ge, Y.; Haimi, Eero; Heczko, Oleg; Oja, M.; Laine, J.; Suhonen, Tomi; Aaltonen, A.; Kalliokaari, K.; Borak, B.; Jasiorski, M.; Baszczuk, A.; Maruszewski, K.; Hannula, Simo-Pekka.

In: Materials Letters, Vol. 61, 2007, p. 3171-3173.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Morphology of ferromagnetic sol-gel submicron silica powders doped with iron and nickel particles

AU - Söderberg, Outi

AU - Ge, Y.

AU - Haimi, Eero

AU - Heczko, Oleg

AU - Oja, M.

AU - Laine, J.

AU - Suhonen, Tomi

AU - Aaltonen, A.

AU - Kalliokaari, K.

AU - Borak, B.

AU - Jasiorski, M.

AU - Baszczuk, A.

AU - Maruszewski, K.

AU - Hannula, Simo-Pekka

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - The sol–gel submicron spherical silica particles were obtained with the modified Stöber method using methanol. Iron and nickel dopants produced by the exploding wire method were introduced to the SiO2 powders during the sol–gel process. The electron microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analyzer studies showed that the hybrid powders agglomerated easily in ethanol. The difference of ζ-potential in pure water between the pure silica (− 46.8 mV), the Fe-doped (− 39.7 mV) and the Ni-doped silica (− 41.5 mV) proved that doping changes the surface properties. The SEM studies confirmed that the Ni-particles could attach to the surface of the silica shells. With TEM it has been found that the differently sized Ni-particles may be encapsulated in silica shells, form clusters within silica or they may remain separate if they were larger than the silica particles. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic hybrid powders was 0.81 emu/g (Fe-doped) and 0.51 emu/g (Ni-doped), while the hysteresis of magnetization revealed that the magnetic particles may have close to a single domain structure. The magnetization values and the X-ray studies confirmed that some Fe-oxides of the initial doping powder remained in the hybrid powder, while the Ni applied was nearly totally metallic.

AB - The sol–gel submicron spherical silica particles were obtained with the modified Stöber method using methanol. Iron and nickel dopants produced by the exploding wire method were introduced to the SiO2 powders during the sol–gel process. The electron microscopy and laser diffraction particle size analyzer studies showed that the hybrid powders agglomerated easily in ethanol. The difference of ζ-potential in pure water between the pure silica (− 46.8 mV), the Fe-doped (− 39.7 mV) and the Ni-doped silica (− 41.5 mV) proved that doping changes the surface properties. The SEM studies confirmed that the Ni-particles could attach to the surface of the silica shells. With TEM it has been found that the differently sized Ni-particles may be encapsulated in silica shells, form clusters within silica or they may remain separate if they were larger than the silica particles. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic hybrid powders was 0.81 emu/g (Fe-doped) and 0.51 emu/g (Ni-doped), while the hysteresis of magnetization revealed that the magnetic particles may have close to a single domain structure. The magnetization values and the X-ray studies confirmed that some Fe-oxides of the initial doping powder remained in the hybrid powder, while the Ni applied was nearly totally metallic.

U2 - 10.1016/j.matlet.2006.11.015

DO - 10.1016/j.matlet.2006.11.015

M3 - Article

VL - 61

SP - 3171

EP - 3173

JO - Materials Letters

JF - Materials Letters

SN - 0167-577X

ER -