The behaviour of concrete structures under fire can be improved by adding fibers. However, relatively little is known of the details of the possible beneficial features of the fibre addition. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different wood‐based fibres on the thermal properties of a standard laboratory cement mortar at conditions of a developing fire. The cone calorimeter heating method was used, and the sample thickness and heat flux were varied (25 mm or 50 mm, 25 kWm−2 or 50 kWm−2) to compare test conditions. The fibres comprised chemical pulp, chemi‐thermomechanical pulp, recycled fibres and viscose fibres. The fibre content in the mortar was 0.15–0.5% by weight. Temperature and mass loos measurements of oven‐dried specimens (moisture content <0.1%) showed no differences between different wood‐based fibre mortars and plain mortar. With increasing moisture content (about 5%), however, the presence of fibres affected the release of moisture from the fibre mortar material. With rapid heating of mortars, which have a moisture content of about 5%, local pressures are easily built up. These pressures are mainly caused by free water vaporization. The rear surface temperature measurements indicate that in mortars containing wood‐based fibres (0.15–0.5% by weight) the vaporization temperatures may be 20 –25% lower than in the reference mortar. Some effects on heat transfer can also be observed due to differences in water vaporization and movement processes.