Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route

Ron Zevenhoven, Johan Sipilä, Sebastian Teir

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    Abstract

    In Finland, work on carbonation of minerals for long-term storage has been ongoing for several years, motivated by greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the absence of locations suitable for geological storage and the presence of vast resources of magnesium silicate minerals. A major focus on high-temperature gas-solid chemistry has been a specific feature of the work, aiming at taking maximum benefit of the fact that the overall chemistry of the carbonation process is exothermic. Thus, proper optimization and integration of the process would in principle allow for operation at zero or negative net energy input. While work on this route in the U.S. ended already a while ago to make way for the more promising routes that make use of aqueous solutions, the Finnish work on gas-solid carbonation has continued and produced data on thermodynamic feasibility and chemical kinetics, and identified a three-staged process for serpentine carbonation. In this paper the pros and contras of using a gas-solid process route for serpentine carbonation for long-term CO2 storage are addressed. The results and current state-of-the-art are summarized and compared with what has been achieved with wet processes for serpentine and olivine carbonation. Also the stability of the carbonate product and the issue of what to do with large amounts of it are addressed. Finally, current activities and near-future plans for the research in Finland are reported, which focuses on the use of fluidized bed reactors for the carbonation of magnesium silicates via magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide intermediates. It is shown that while gas-solid carbonation of magnesium hydroxide at acceptable rates requires temperatures above 500°C and pressures above 30-40 atm, the production of magnesium hydroxide from serpentine is not straightforward either.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008
    EditorsRenato Baciocchi , Giulia Costa , Alessandra Polettini , Raffaella Pomi
    Place of PublicationRome, Italy
    Pages45-54
    Publication statusPublished - 2008
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    Event2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008 - Rome, Italy
    Duration: 1 Oct 20083 Oct 2008

    Conference

    Conference2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008
    Abbreviated titleACEME 2008
    CountryItaly
    CityRome
    Period1/10/083/10/08

    Fingerprint

    Carbonation
    Silicates
    Magnesium
    Gases
    Silicate minerals
    Olivine
    Magnesia
    Gas emissions
    Greenhouse gases
    Reaction kinetics
    Fluidized beds
    Carbonates
    Minerals
    Thermodynamics
    Temperature

    Cite this

    Zevenhoven, R., Sipilä, J., & Teir, S. (2008). Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route. In R. Baciocchi , G. Costa , A. Polettini , & R. Pomi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008 (pp. 45-54). Rome, Italy.
    Zevenhoven, Ron ; Sipilä, Johan ; Teir, Sebastian. / Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. editor / Renato Baciocchi ; Giulia Costa ; Alessandra Polettini ; Raffaella Pomi. Rome, Italy, 2008. pp. 45-54
    @inproceedings{7152fc5e36154668be4cd6fb60635145,
    title = "Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route",
    abstract = "In Finland, work on carbonation of minerals for long-term storage has been ongoing for several years, motivated by greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the absence of locations suitable for geological storage and the presence of vast resources of magnesium silicate minerals. A major focus on high-temperature gas-solid chemistry has been a specific feature of the work, aiming at taking maximum benefit of the fact that the overall chemistry of the carbonation process is exothermic. Thus, proper optimization and integration of the process would in principle allow for operation at zero or negative net energy input. While work on this route in the U.S. ended already a while ago to make way for the more promising routes that make use of aqueous solutions, the Finnish work on gas-solid carbonation has continued and produced data on thermodynamic feasibility and chemical kinetics, and identified a three-staged process for serpentine carbonation. In this paper the pros and contras of using a gas-solid process route for serpentine carbonation for long-term CO2 storage are addressed. The results and current state-of-the-art are summarized and compared with what has been achieved with wet processes for serpentine and olivine carbonation. Also the stability of the carbonate product and the issue of what to do with large amounts of it are addressed. Finally, current activities and near-future plans for the research in Finland are reported, which focuses on the use of fluidized bed reactors for the carbonation of magnesium silicates via magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide intermediates. It is shown that while gas-solid carbonation of magnesium hydroxide at acceptable rates requires temperatures above 500°C and pressures above 30-40 atm, the production of magnesium hydroxide from serpentine is not straightforward either.",
    author = "Ron Zevenhoven and Johan Sipil{\"a} and Sebastian Teir",
    year = "2008",
    language = "English",
    pages = "45--54",
    editor = "{Baciocchi }, Renato and {Costa }, Giulia and {Polettini }, Alessandra and Pomi, {Raffaella }",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008",

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    Zevenhoven, R, Sipilä, J & Teir, S 2008, Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route. in R Baciocchi , G Costa , A Polettini & R Pomi (eds), Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. Rome, Italy, pp. 45-54, 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008, Rome, Italy, 1/10/08.

    Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route. / Zevenhoven, Ron; Sipilä, Johan; Teir, Sebastian.

    Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. ed. / Renato Baciocchi ; Giulia Costa ; Alessandra Polettini ; Raffaella Pomi. Rome, Italy, 2008. p. 45-54.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientificpeer-review

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route

    AU - Zevenhoven, Ron

    AU - Sipilä, Johan

    AU - Teir, Sebastian

    PY - 2008

    Y1 - 2008

    N2 - In Finland, work on carbonation of minerals for long-term storage has been ongoing for several years, motivated by greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the absence of locations suitable for geological storage and the presence of vast resources of magnesium silicate minerals. A major focus on high-temperature gas-solid chemistry has been a specific feature of the work, aiming at taking maximum benefit of the fact that the overall chemistry of the carbonation process is exothermic. Thus, proper optimization and integration of the process would in principle allow for operation at zero or negative net energy input. While work on this route in the U.S. ended already a while ago to make way for the more promising routes that make use of aqueous solutions, the Finnish work on gas-solid carbonation has continued and produced data on thermodynamic feasibility and chemical kinetics, and identified a three-staged process for serpentine carbonation. In this paper the pros and contras of using a gas-solid process route for serpentine carbonation for long-term CO2 storage are addressed. The results and current state-of-the-art are summarized and compared with what has been achieved with wet processes for serpentine and olivine carbonation. Also the stability of the carbonate product and the issue of what to do with large amounts of it are addressed. Finally, current activities and near-future plans for the research in Finland are reported, which focuses on the use of fluidized bed reactors for the carbonation of magnesium silicates via magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide intermediates. It is shown that while gas-solid carbonation of magnesium hydroxide at acceptable rates requires temperatures above 500°C and pressures above 30-40 atm, the production of magnesium hydroxide from serpentine is not straightforward either.

    AB - In Finland, work on carbonation of minerals for long-term storage has been ongoing for several years, motivated by greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the absence of locations suitable for geological storage and the presence of vast resources of magnesium silicate minerals. A major focus on high-temperature gas-solid chemistry has been a specific feature of the work, aiming at taking maximum benefit of the fact that the overall chemistry of the carbonation process is exothermic. Thus, proper optimization and integration of the process would in principle allow for operation at zero or negative net energy input. While work on this route in the U.S. ended already a while ago to make way for the more promising routes that make use of aqueous solutions, the Finnish work on gas-solid carbonation has continued and produced data on thermodynamic feasibility and chemical kinetics, and identified a three-staged process for serpentine carbonation. In this paper the pros and contras of using a gas-solid process route for serpentine carbonation for long-term CO2 storage are addressed. The results and current state-of-the-art are summarized and compared with what has been achieved with wet processes for serpentine and olivine carbonation. Also the stability of the carbonate product and the issue of what to do with large amounts of it are addressed. Finally, current activities and near-future plans for the research in Finland are reported, which focuses on the use of fluidized bed reactors for the carbonation of magnesium silicates via magnesium oxide and magnesium hydroxide intermediates. It is shown that while gas-solid carbonation of magnesium hydroxide at acceptable rates requires temperatures above 500°C and pressures above 30-40 atm, the production of magnesium hydroxide from serpentine is not straightforward either.

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    SP - 45

    EP - 54

    BT - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008

    A2 - Baciocchi , Renato

    A2 - Costa , Giulia

    A2 - Polettini , Alessandra

    A2 - Pomi, Raffaella

    CY - Rome, Italy

    ER -

    Zevenhoven R, Sipilä J, Teir S. Motivations for carbonating magnesium silicates using a gas-solid process route. In Baciocchi R, Costa G, Polettini A, Pomi R, editors, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Accelerated Carbonation for Environmental and Materials Engineering, ACEME 2008. Rome, Italy. 2008. p. 45-54