Multi-layered tissue head phantoms for noninvasive optical diagnostics

M. S. Wróbel, A. P. Popov, A. V. Bykov, M. Kinnunen, M. Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, V. V. Tuchin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


Extensive research in the area of optical sensing for medical diagnostics requires development of tissue phantoms with optical properties similar to those of living human tissues. Development and improvement of in vivo optical measurement systems requires the use of stable tissue phantoms with known characteristics, which are mainly used for calibration of such systems and testing their performance over time. Optical and mechanical properties of phantoms depend on their purpose. Nevertheless, they must accurately simulate specific tissues they are supposed to mimic. Many tissues and organs including head possess a multi-layered structure, with specific optical properties of each layer. However, such a structure is not always addressed in the present-day phantoms. In this paper, we focus on the development of a plain-parallel multi-layered phantom with optical properties (reduced scattering coefficient $\mu-{s}^{\prime}$ and absorption coefficient μa) corresponding to the human head layers, such as skin, skull, and gray and white matter of the brain tissue. The phantom is intended for use in noninvasive diffuse near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of human brain. Optical parameters of the fabricated phantoms are reconstructed using spectrophotometry and inverse adding-doubling calculation method. The results show that polyvinyl chloride-plastisol (PVCP) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are suitable materials for fabrication of tissue mimicking phantoms with controlled scattering properties. Good matching was found between optical properties of phantoms and the corresponding values found in the literature.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1541005
JournalJournal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • head model
  • near-infrared spectroscopy
  • optical properties
  • Tissue-mimicking phantoms


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