Multiomics and digital monitoring during lifestyle changes reveal independent dimensions of human biology and health

Francesco Marabita (Corresponding Author), Tojo James, Anu Karhu, Heidi Virtanen, Kaisa Kettunen, Hans Stenlund, Fredrik Boulund, Cecilia Hellström, Maja Neiman, Robert Mills, Teemu Perheentupa, Hannele Laivuori, Pyry Helkkula, Myles Byrne, Ilkka Jokinen, Harri Honko, Antti Kallonen, Miikka Ermes, Heidi Similä, Mikko LindholmElisabeth Widén, Samuli Ripatti, Maritta Perälä-Heape, Lars Engstrand, Peter Nilsson, Thomas Moritz, Timo Miettinen, Riitta Sallinen, Olli Kallioniemi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


We explored opportunities for personalized and predictive health care by collecting serial clinical measurements, health surveys, genomics, proteomics, autoantibodies, metabolomics, and gut microbiome data from 96 individuals who participated in a data-driven health coaching program over a 16-month period with continuous digital monitoring of activity and sleep. We generated a resource of >20,000 biological samples from this study and a compendium of >53 million primary data points for 558,032 distinct features. Multiomics factor analysis revealed distinct and independent molecular factors linked to obesity, diabetes, liver function, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, immunity, exercise, diet, and hormonal effects. For example, ethinyl estradiol, a common oral contraceptive, produced characteristic molecular and physiological effects, including increased levels of inflammation and impact on thyroid, cortisol levels, and pulse, that were distinct from other sources of variability observed in our study. In total, this work illustrates the value of combining deep molecular and digital monitoring of human health. A record of this paper's transparent peer review process is included in the supplemental information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-255.e7
JournalCell Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 16 Mar 2022
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • lifestyle changes
  • multiomics data integration
  • P4 medicine
  • personalized medicine
  • precision health
  • precision medicine
  • systems medicine


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