Multiplexed readout of kinetic inductance bolometer arrays

Hannu Sipola, Juho Luomahaara, Andrey Timofeev, Leif Grönberg, Anssi Rautiainen, Arttu Luukanen, Juha Hassel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Kinetic inductance bolometer technology is a candidate for passive submillimeter wave and terahertz imaging systems. Its benefits include scalability into large 2D arrays and operation with intermediate cryogenics in the temperature range of 5-10 K. We have previously demonstrated the scalability in terms of device fabrication, optics integration, and cryogenics. In this article, we address the last missing ingredient, the readout. The concept, serial addressed frequency excitation, is an alternative to full frequency-division multiplexing at microwave frequencies conventionally used to read out kinetic inductance detectors. We introduce the concept and analyze the criteria of the multiplexed readout avoiding the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of a thermal anti-alias filter inherent to thermal detectors. We present a practical scalable realization of a readout system integrated into a prototype imager with 8712 detectors. This is used for demonstrating the noise properties of the readout. Furthermore, we present practical detection experiments with a stand-off laboratory-scale imager.

Original languageEnglish
Article number074702
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


The research received funding from the European Space Agency (ESA) through Contract No. GSTP 4000115091/15/NL/AF “Large-area staring kinetic inductance focal plane array operating at elevated temperature” and was also supported by European Union through FP7 project CONSORTIS, as well as by the Academy of Finland through Grant Nos. 305007, 314447, and 317844.


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