Multivariate data analysis of some Finnish water courses

Pentti Manninen, Erkki Häsänen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The following parameters were analyzed 2 to 4 times a year from 37 sampling sites; T, O2, O2%, Turbidity, Suspended solids, Conductivity, Alkalinity, pH, Color, CODMn, Total nitrogen, Total phosphorus, Cl, Fe, Mn, Total sulphur, K, Na, Ca, Mg, SiO2, Total organic chlorine and Total organic bromine. Samples were taken from waters loaded by chemical pulp mills, other industries, municipal waste waters and agriculture. Also waters under natural conditions were included. Water samples have been collected and analyzed in co-operation with the National Board of Waters and the Environment. The data set was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine correlations between variables, especially between Total organic chlorine and Total organic bromine and others. Typically Total organic chlorine and Total organic bromine correlated with Na, Cl and Total sulphur. It is interesting to note that Total organic chlorine and Total organic bromine did not follow each other in all components. Total organic chlorine was predicted using other variables and Partial Least Squares (PLS) method. Very satisfactory correlation was obtained between analyzed and predicted lgTOCl values. Optimally three different object classes were found from the whole data using fuzzy clustering analysis. One class represents waters in a natural condition, one water loaded mainly by agriculture and one represent the rest of the waters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)620-623
JournalFresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1991
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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