Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin

Mark G. Williams, Julie Wilsher, Phil Nugent, Alan Mills, V. Dhanaraj, Milan Fabry, Juraj Sedlácek, J. M. Uusitalo, M. E. Penttila, Jim E. Pitts, Tom L. Blundell

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Abstract

Chymosin B point mutants, A115T and G243D (chymosin A), were expressed in Escherichia coli and Trichoderma reesei respectively, characterized biochemically, crystallized and studied by X-ray analysis at 2.3 and 2.8 Å resolutions respectively. The three-dimensional structures showed that the mutations gave rise to local conformational changes only when compared with that of chymosin B. Kinetic analysis of the A115T mutant with a six residue synthetic peptide revealed a reduction in K(m) with respect to the wild type, possibly caused by the small local changes in the vicinity of S1 and S3. Although, kinetic analyses of the G243D mutant using the short substrate showed reduced catalytic activity, use of a 15 residue substrate based on residues 98-112 of κ-casein, the natural substrate, revealed an increase in the k(cat) compared with chymosin B, probably a consequence of the charge introduced that may interact with the substrate between P4 and P8.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)991-997
Number of pages7
JournalProtein Engineering
Volume10
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1997
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Chymosin
Mutagenesis
Structural analysis
X-Rays
X rays
Substrates
Casein
Trichoderma
Kinetics
X ray analysis
Caseins
Escherichia coli
Peptides
Catalyst activity
Mutation

Keywords

  • Aspartic proteinase
  • Chymosin
  • Crystal structure
  • Mutant
  • Substrate

Cite this

Williams, M. G., Wilsher, J., Nugent, P., Mills, A., Dhanaraj, V., Fabry, M., ... Blundell, T. L. (1997). Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin. Protein Engineering, 10(9), 991-997.
Williams, Mark G. ; Wilsher, Julie ; Nugent, Phil ; Mills, Alan ; Dhanaraj, V. ; Fabry, Milan ; Sedlácek, Juraj ; Uusitalo, J. M. ; Penttila, M. E. ; Pitts, Jim E. ; Blundell, Tom L. / Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin. In: Protein Engineering. 1997 ; Vol. 10, No. 9. pp. 991-997.
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abstract = "Chymosin B point mutants, A115T and G243D (chymosin A), were expressed in Escherichia coli and Trichoderma reesei respectively, characterized biochemically, crystallized and studied by X-ray analysis at 2.3 and 2.8 {\AA} resolutions respectively. The three-dimensional structures showed that the mutations gave rise to local conformational changes only when compared with that of chymosin B. Kinetic analysis of the A115T mutant with a six residue synthetic peptide revealed a reduction in K(m) with respect to the wild type, possibly caused by the small local changes in the vicinity of S1 and S3. Although, kinetic analyses of the G243D mutant using the short substrate showed reduced catalytic activity, use of a 15 residue substrate based on residues 98-112 of κ-casein, the natural substrate, revealed an increase in the k(cat) compared with chymosin B, probably a consequence of the charge introduced that may interact with the substrate between P4 and P8.",
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Williams, MG, Wilsher, J, Nugent, P, Mills, A, Dhanaraj, V, Fabry, M, Sedlácek, J, Uusitalo, JM, Penttila, ME, Pitts, JE & Blundell, TL 1997, 'Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin', Protein Engineering, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 991-997.

Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin. / Williams, Mark G.; Wilsher, Julie; Nugent, Phil; Mills, Alan; Dhanaraj, V.; Fabry, Milan; Sedlácek, Juraj; Uusitalo, J. M.; Penttila, M. E.; Pitts, Jim E.; Blundell, Tom L.

In: Protein Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 9, 01.12.1997, p. 991-997.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin

AU - Williams, Mark G.

AU - Wilsher, Julie

AU - Nugent, Phil

AU - Mills, Alan

AU - Dhanaraj, V.

AU - Fabry, Milan

AU - Sedlácek, Juraj

AU - Uusitalo, J. M.

AU - Penttila, M. E.

AU - Pitts, Jim E.

AU - Blundell, Tom L.

PY - 1997/12/1

Y1 - 1997/12/1

N2 - Chymosin B point mutants, A115T and G243D (chymosin A), were expressed in Escherichia coli and Trichoderma reesei respectively, characterized biochemically, crystallized and studied by X-ray analysis at 2.3 and 2.8 Å resolutions respectively. The three-dimensional structures showed that the mutations gave rise to local conformational changes only when compared with that of chymosin B. Kinetic analysis of the A115T mutant with a six residue synthetic peptide revealed a reduction in K(m) with respect to the wild type, possibly caused by the small local changes in the vicinity of S1 and S3. Although, kinetic analyses of the G243D mutant using the short substrate showed reduced catalytic activity, use of a 15 residue substrate based on residues 98-112 of κ-casein, the natural substrate, revealed an increase in the k(cat) compared with chymosin B, probably a consequence of the charge introduced that may interact with the substrate between P4 and P8.

AB - Chymosin B point mutants, A115T and G243D (chymosin A), were expressed in Escherichia coli and Trichoderma reesei respectively, characterized biochemically, crystallized and studied by X-ray analysis at 2.3 and 2.8 Å resolutions respectively. The three-dimensional structures showed that the mutations gave rise to local conformational changes only when compared with that of chymosin B. Kinetic analysis of the A115T mutant with a six residue synthetic peptide revealed a reduction in K(m) with respect to the wild type, possibly caused by the small local changes in the vicinity of S1 and S3. Although, kinetic analyses of the G243D mutant using the short substrate showed reduced catalytic activity, use of a 15 residue substrate based on residues 98-112 of κ-casein, the natural substrate, revealed an increase in the k(cat) compared with chymosin B, probably a consequence of the charge introduced that may interact with the substrate between P4 and P8.

KW - Aspartic proteinase

KW - Chymosin

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Williams MG, Wilsher J, Nugent P, Mills A, Dhanaraj V, Fabry M et al. Mutagenesis, biochemical characterization and X-ray structural analysis of point mutants of bovine chymosin. Protein Engineering. 1997 Dec 1;10(9):991-997.