Nano-fibrillated cellulose vs bacterial cellulose: Reinforcing ability of nanocellulose obtained topdown or bottom-up

Koon-Yang Lee, Tekla Tammelin, Harri Kiiskinen, Juha Samela, Kerstin Schlufter, Alexander Bismarck

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

    3 Citations (Scopus)


    This work investigates the difference between nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and bacterial cellulose (BC). BC possesses higher critical surface tension of 57 mN m-1 compared to NFC (41 mN m-1). The thermal degradation temperature of BC was also found to be higher than that of NFC, in both nitrogen and air atmosphere. These results are in good agreement with the higher crystallinity of BC based on area under the XRD spectra, measured to be 71% as compared to NFC of 41%. Both types of nanocellulose papers were found to possess similar tensile moduli and strengths of 12 GPa and 100 MPa, respectively. Nanocomposites were manufactured by infusing the nanocellulose paper with an epoxy resin using vacuum assisted resin infusion. The cellulose reinforced epoxy nanocomposites were found to possess a stiffness and strength of approximately ∼8 GPa and ∼100 MPa at an equivalent fibre volume fraction of 60 vol.-%. In terms of the reinforcing ability of NFC and BC in a polymer matrix, no significant difference between NFC and BC was observed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationECCM 2012 - Composites at Venice
    Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 15th European Conference on Composite Materials 2012
    PublisherUniversita di Padova
    Number of pages8
    ISBN (Print)978-88-8878-533-2
    Publication statusPublished - 2012
    MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
    Event15th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM15 - Venice, Italy
    Duration: 24 Jun 201228 Jun 2012


    Conference15th European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM15
    Abbreviated titleECCM 2012


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