Nanofibrillated cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol), montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites with superior barrier and thermomechanical properties

Steven Spoljaric, Arto Salminen, Nguyen Dang Luong, Panu Lahtinen, Jari Vartiainen, Tekla Tammelin, Jukka Seppälä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and montmorillonite (MMT) clay were prepared via solvent casting. In addition to investigating the effect of clay loading, PVA matrices crosslinked with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared and compared with linear (noncrosslinked) PVA nanocomposites. 13C NMR and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of crosslinks. Scanning electron microscopy revealed effective NFC and MMT clay dispersion throughout the nanocomposites, while X-ray diffraction highlighted the effectiveness of PAA to encourage clay dispersion. MMT clay provided a barrier against the diffusion of water and oxygen (molecules) through the nanocomposite films. Permeability and adsorption were further reduced by crosslinking, while oxygen barrier properties were remarkably enhanced at elevated relative humidities. Thermal stability of the PVA segments was strengthened by the presence of MMT clay and crosslinks. MMT clay-reinforced PVA and NFC within the films, increasing the Young's modulus, tensile strength, and glass transition temperature. Crosslinking further enhanced the thermomechanical properties by imparting physical restraints on polymer chain segments, providing elasticity, and ductility. The hybrid films were successfully reinforced at elevated humidities, with nanocomposites displaying enhanced storage moduli and near-complete recovery. POLYM. COMPOS., 35:1117-1131, 2014.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1117-1131
JournalPolymer Composites
Volume35
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Bentonite
Clay minerals
Cellulose
Nanocomposites
Clay
Alcohols
carbopol 940
Crosslinking
Atmospheric humidity
Elastic moduli
Oxygen
Nanocomposite films
clay
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Acrylics
Ductility
Infrared spectroscopy
Elasticity
Polymers
Casting

Keywords

  • Nanocomposite films
  • Polyvinyl alcohols

Cite this

Spoljaric, Steven ; Salminen, Arto ; Dang Luong, Nguyen ; Lahtinen, Panu ; Vartiainen, Jari ; Tammelin, Tekla ; Seppälä, Jukka. / Nanofibrillated cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol), montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites with superior barrier and thermomechanical properties. In: Polymer Composites. 2014 ; Vol. 35, No. 6. pp. 1117-1131.
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abstract = "Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and montmorillonite (MMT) clay were prepared via solvent casting. In addition to investigating the effect of clay loading, PVA matrices crosslinked with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared and compared with linear (noncrosslinked) PVA nanocomposites. 13C NMR and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of crosslinks. Scanning electron microscopy revealed effective NFC and MMT clay dispersion throughout the nanocomposites, while X-ray diffraction highlighted the effectiveness of PAA to encourage clay dispersion. MMT clay provided a barrier against the diffusion of water and oxygen (molecules) through the nanocomposite films. Permeability and adsorption were further reduced by crosslinking, while oxygen barrier properties were remarkably enhanced at elevated relative humidities. Thermal stability of the PVA segments was strengthened by the presence of MMT clay and crosslinks. MMT clay-reinforced PVA and NFC within the films, increasing the Young's modulus, tensile strength, and glass transition temperature. Crosslinking further enhanced the thermomechanical properties by imparting physical restraints on polymer chain segments, providing elasticity, and ductility. The hybrid films were successfully reinforced at elevated humidities, with nanocomposites displaying enhanced storage moduli and near-complete recovery. POLYM. COMPOS., 35:1117-1131, 2014.",
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Nanofibrillated cellulose, poly(vinyl alcohol), montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites with superior barrier and thermomechanical properties. / Spoljaric, Steven; Salminen, Arto; Dang Luong, Nguyen; Lahtinen, Panu; Vartiainen, Jari; Tammelin, Tekla; Seppälä, Jukka.

In: Polymer Composites, Vol. 35, No. 6, 2014, p. 1117-1131.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Salminen, Arto

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AU - Seppälä, Jukka

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AB - Nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), and montmorillonite (MMT) clay were prepared via solvent casting. In addition to investigating the effect of clay loading, PVA matrices crosslinked with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared and compared with linear (noncrosslinked) PVA nanocomposites. 13C NMR and infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of crosslinks. Scanning electron microscopy revealed effective NFC and MMT clay dispersion throughout the nanocomposites, while X-ray diffraction highlighted the effectiveness of PAA to encourage clay dispersion. MMT clay provided a barrier against the diffusion of water and oxygen (molecules) through the nanocomposite films. Permeability and adsorption were further reduced by crosslinking, while oxygen barrier properties were remarkably enhanced at elevated relative humidities. Thermal stability of the PVA segments was strengthened by the presence of MMT clay and crosslinks. MMT clay-reinforced PVA and NFC within the films, increasing the Young's modulus, tensile strength, and glass transition temperature. Crosslinking further enhanced the thermomechanical properties by imparting physical restraints on polymer chain segments, providing elasticity, and ductility. The hybrid films were successfully reinforced at elevated humidities, with nanocomposites displaying enhanced storage moduli and near-complete recovery. POLYM. COMPOS., 35:1117-1131, 2014.

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