Natural radiation: A perspective to radiological risk factors of nuclear energy production

Raimo Mustonen, T. Christensen, H. Stranden, H. Ehdwall, S. Hansen, Vesa Suolanen, Timo Vieno

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Radiation doses from natural radiation and from man-made modifications on natural radiation, and different natural radiological environments in the Nordic countries are summarized and used as a perspective for the radiological consequences of nuclear energy production. The significance of different radiation sources can be judged against the total collective effective dose equivalent from natural radiation in the Nordic countries, 92 000 manSv per year. The collective dose from nuclear energy production during normal operation is estimated to 20 manSv per year and from non-nuclear energy production to 80 manSv per year. The increase in collective dose due to the conservation of heating energy in Nordic dwellings is estimated to 23 000 manSv per year, from 1973 to 1984. An indirect radiological danger index is defined in order to be able to compare the significance of estimated future releases of radionuclides from a final repository of spent nuclear fuel to the consequences of natural radionuclides in different environments. The danger index of natural radiological environments will not be significantly increased by future releases of nuclear fuel radionuclides.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)99-112
    Number of pages14
    JournalScience of the Total Environment
    Publication statusPublished - 1992
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • nuclear energy


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