A novel high-resolution sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography and direct writing of micro-optical elements is reported. A negative tone hybrid sol-gel material was synthesized and used for fabrication of submicrometer grating structures by electron-beam lithography. Doses from 10 to 100 μC/cm2 were able to crosslink the material and convert it into hybrid sol-gel glass. The sensitivity and the contrast of the material were found to be good with a linewidth of 0.5 μm.
Rantala, J., Penner, R. S., Honkanen, S., Vähäkangas, J., Fallahi, M., & Peyghambarian, N. (1999). Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography. Thin Solid Films, 345(2), 185-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(98)01365-0