Monte Carlo ion simulation based on neoclassical radial current balance in a divertor tokamak gives a stationary sheared →E×→B flow. The neoclassical radial electric field Er shows no bifurcation in contrast with earlier orbit loss models, but the shear in Er reaches values at which a transition to enhanced confinement has been observed. Also, MHD turbulence analysis shows that a smooth transition can occur through the neoclassical →E×→B flow shear suppression. The parameter scaling of threshold temperature for strong turbulence shear suppression agrees with the H-mode threshold scaling in ASDEX Upgrade.
Heikkinen, J., Kiviniemi, T., & Peeters, A. (2000). Neoclassical radial current balance in Tokamaks and transition to the H mode. Physical Review Letters, 84(3), 487-490. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.487