Two examples of the use of neutron activation analysis for the characterization of semiconductor materials are given. 23 elements were determined in ASTM silicon intercomparison samples. Most elements are below the detection limits, which vary between 0.009–300 ng/g. CdS/CdTe thin films have been characterized by determining the Cd, Te, Cl, I and In concentrations of dissolved films. Parallel determinations in different samples of films prepared under identical conditions agreed within 0–53% (average deviation 21%) for Cl, Cd, In and I in CdS and 1.6–22% (average 8.7%) for Cd and Te in CdS/CdTe, respectively. It was determined both by NAA and resonance ionization spectrometry (RIS). The order of magnitude of the results was 1 ng/g and they agree within the range 7–64% (average difference 25%). The analytical procedures are described and discussed.