New production concepts for biomass-based methanol and
hydrogen for use as transportation fuels were evaluated.
The fuel chain greenhouse gas emissions for these
biofuels were estimated and compared with corresponding
emissions for gasoline and some other fuels.
Concepts with methanol or hydrogen production integrated
with pulp and paper production were studied more closely.
These concepts were found to increase the total
efficiency and lower the production costs compared to
stand-alone plants. However, the costs were estimated
still to be 2 to 4 times higher than those of fossil
transportation fuels on average.
The estimation of the fuel chain emissions included
emissions from production and distribution of the fuels
to end use in selected vehicle types. The estimated total
fuel chain greenhouse gas emissions were significantly
lower (approximately 80-90%) for the biomass-based
methanol and hydrogen fuels than for most of the other
considered alternatives. The availability of biomass
resources for the production of biomethanol or
biohydrogen and the high production costs were estimated
to limit the implementation of the process concepts and
use of the fuels in transportation. Most promising
prospects for biomass-derived methanol or hydrogen were
seen as fuels for fuel cell vehicles in urban
|Place of Publication||Espoo|
|Publisher||VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland|
|Number of pages||97|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|
|MoE publication type||D4 Published development or research report or study|
|Series||VTT Tiedotteita - Meddelanden - Research Notes|
- greenhouse gases
- engine fuels