Next generation fluidized bed granulator automation

Jukka Rantanen, Markku Känsäkoski, Janne Suhonen, Jussi Tenhunen, Seppo Lehtonen, Tarja Rajalahti, Jukka-Pekka Mannermaa, Jouko Yliruusi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    41 Citations (Scopus)


    A system for fluidized bed granulator automation with in-line multichannel near infrared (NIR) moisture measurement and a unique air flow rate measurement design was assembled, and the information gained was investigated. The multivariate process data collected was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The test materials (theophylline and microcrystalline cellulose) were granulated and the calibration behavior of the multichannel NIR set-up was evaluated against full Fourier Transform (FT) NIR spectra. Accurate and reliable process air flow rate measurement proved critical in controlling the granulation process. The process data describing the state of the process was projected in two dimensions, and the information from various trend charts was outlined simultaneously. The absorbence of test material at correction wavelengths (NIR region) and the nature of material-water interactions affected the detected in-line NIR water signal. This resulted in different calibration models for the test materials. Development of process analytical methods together with new data visualization algorithms creates new tools for in-process control of the fluidized bed granulation.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)26-36
    JournalAAPS PharmSciTech
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2000
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • In-line moisture measurement
    • Multivariate data analysis
    • Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy
    • Multivariate batch modeling
    • Principal component analysis (PCA)
    • Process automation
    • fluidized beds


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