Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries: Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study

Johannes Jermakka, Laura Wendling, Elina Sohlberg, Hanna Heinonen, Elina Merta, Jutta Laine-Ylijoki, Tommi Kaartinen, Ulla-Maija Mroueh

Research output: Book/ReportReport

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Mining wastewaters can contain nitrogen from incomplete detonation of nitrogen rich explosives and from nitrogen containing chemicals used in enrichment processes. Nitrogen released to the wastewaters is a potential environmental risk. Nitrogen can be dangerous for aquatic organisms or more prominently cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Nitrogen chemistry is complex, allowing numerous chemical and biological reaction paths and compounds. Various techniques have been investigated for nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions, such as industrial and municipal wastewaters. Many of the technologies currently available are not suited for the treatment of mine wastewaters containing low levels of nitrogenous compounds, due to treatment costs or stringent operating parameters. Although biological methods potentially offer an effective and inexpensive option for the removal of nitrogen from wastewaters, in mine applications these techniques may be limited by the temperature dependence, especially in cold regions. Zero-valent metals can be utilised for passive reduction of nitrate in aqueous solution. However, whilst no external energy is required to facilitate N reduction using zero-valent metals, pH buffering or extremely low pH conditions are required to supply adequate protons for the reduction reaction to proceed. Evaporation and aeration techniques are often used for ammonia removal from industrial wastewaters but their use in mine applications is limited by low concentrations, large volumes and requirement for pH control. Membrane technologies are similarly poorly-suited to the treatment of large volumes of mine wastewater. Due to their high cost and substantial operational requirements, membrane technologies are generally employed for the production of high-quality water. Sorption techniques have been thoroughly examined for the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from aqueous solution and they offer an attractive alternative. Sorption technologies offer benefits including the relative simplicity of sorption methods, their economy in application and operation, and the low temperature dependence of sorption reactions. Electrochemical methods can be used to convert nitrogenous compounds to a desired form facilitating nitrogen removal as nitrogen gas or as pure ammonia. Thus, these methods offer a temperature-independent alternative for biological nitrogen removal techniques. In addition, electrochemical processes can be run periodically as necessary and no chemical addition is required. Based on a literature review, a combination of sorption and electrochemical techniques is potentially most promising method for the treatment of large volumes of wastewater containing multiple nitrogenous compounds. The performance of both sorption techniques and electrochemistry enhanced ammonia stripping will be further experimentally studied for the attenuation of multiple nitrogenous compounds in mine wastewater.
Original languageEnglish
Place of PublicationEspoo
PublisherVTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Number of pages144
ISBN (Electronic)978-951-38-8320-1
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Publication series

SeriesVTT Technology
Number226
ISSN2242-1211

Fingerprint

nitrogen compound
quarry
nitrogen
wastewater
sorption
water
aqueous solution
ammonia
removal
literature study
membrane
electrochemistry
electrochemical method
biological method
cold region
metal
aquatic organism
buffering
literature review
environmental risk

Keywords

  • ammonia
  • nitrate
  • mine wastewater
  • treatment technology
  • nitrogen recovery
  • nitrogen sources
  • explosives

Cite this

Jermakka, J., Wendling, L., Sohlberg, E., Heinonen, H., Merta, E., Laine-Ylijoki, J., ... Mroueh, U-M. (2015). Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries: Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. VTT Technology, No. 226
Jermakka, Johannes ; Wendling, Laura ; Sohlberg, Elina ; Heinonen, Hanna ; Merta, Elina ; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta ; Kaartinen, Tommi ; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija. / Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries : Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study. Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 144 p. (VTT Technology; No. 226).
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abstract = "Mining wastewaters can contain nitrogen from incomplete detonation of nitrogen rich explosives and from nitrogen containing chemicals used in enrichment processes. Nitrogen released to the wastewaters is a potential environmental risk. Nitrogen can be dangerous for aquatic organisms or more prominently cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Nitrogen chemistry is complex, allowing numerous chemical and biological reaction paths and compounds. Various techniques have been investigated for nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions, such as industrial and municipal wastewaters. Many of the technologies currently available are not suited for the treatment of mine wastewaters containing low levels of nitrogenous compounds, due to treatment costs or stringent operating parameters. Although biological methods potentially offer an effective and inexpensive option for the removal of nitrogen from wastewaters, in mine applications these techniques may be limited by the temperature dependence, especially in cold regions. Zero-valent metals can be utilised for passive reduction of nitrate in aqueous solution. However, whilst no external energy is required to facilitate N reduction using zero-valent metals, pH buffering or extremely low pH conditions are required to supply adequate protons for the reduction reaction to proceed. Evaporation and aeration techniques are often used for ammonia removal from industrial wastewaters but their use in mine applications is limited by low concentrations, large volumes and requirement for pH control. Membrane technologies are similarly poorly-suited to the treatment of large volumes of mine wastewater. Due to their high cost and substantial operational requirements, membrane technologies are generally employed for the production of high-quality water. Sorption techniques have been thoroughly examined for the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from aqueous solution and they offer an attractive alternative. Sorption technologies offer benefits including the relative simplicity of sorption methods, their economy in application and operation, and the low temperature dependence of sorption reactions. Electrochemical methods can be used to convert nitrogenous compounds to a desired form facilitating nitrogen removal as nitrogen gas or as pure ammonia. Thus, these methods offer a temperature-independent alternative for biological nitrogen removal techniques. In addition, electrochemical processes can be run periodically as necessary and no chemical addition is required. Based on a literature review, a combination of sorption and electrochemical techniques is potentially most promising method for the treatment of large volumes of wastewater containing multiple nitrogenous compounds. The performance of both sorption techniques and electrochemistry enhanced ammonia stripping will be further experimentally studied for the attenuation of multiple nitrogenous compounds in mine wastewater.",
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Jermakka, J, Wendling, L, Sohlberg, E, Heinonen, H, Merta, E, Laine-Ylijoki, J, Kaartinen, T & Mroueh, U-M 2015, Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries: Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study. VTT Technology, no. 226, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo.

Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries : Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study. / Jermakka, Johannes; Wendling, Laura; Sohlberg, Elina; Heinonen, Hanna; Merta, Elina; Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta; Kaartinen, Tommi; Mroueh, Ulla-Maija.

Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 144 p. (VTT Technology; No. 226).

Research output: Book/ReportReport

TY - BOOK

T1 - Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries

T2 - Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study

AU - Jermakka, Johannes

AU - Wendling, Laura

AU - Sohlberg, Elina

AU - Heinonen, Hanna

AU - Merta, Elina

AU - Laine-Ylijoki, Jutta

AU - Kaartinen, Tommi

AU - Mroueh, Ulla-Maija

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Mining wastewaters can contain nitrogen from incomplete detonation of nitrogen rich explosives and from nitrogen containing chemicals used in enrichment processes. Nitrogen released to the wastewaters is a potential environmental risk. Nitrogen can be dangerous for aquatic organisms or more prominently cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Nitrogen chemistry is complex, allowing numerous chemical and biological reaction paths and compounds. Various techniques have been investigated for nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions, such as industrial and municipal wastewaters. Many of the technologies currently available are not suited for the treatment of mine wastewaters containing low levels of nitrogenous compounds, due to treatment costs or stringent operating parameters. Although biological methods potentially offer an effective and inexpensive option for the removal of nitrogen from wastewaters, in mine applications these techniques may be limited by the temperature dependence, especially in cold regions. Zero-valent metals can be utilised for passive reduction of nitrate in aqueous solution. However, whilst no external energy is required to facilitate N reduction using zero-valent metals, pH buffering or extremely low pH conditions are required to supply adequate protons for the reduction reaction to proceed. Evaporation and aeration techniques are often used for ammonia removal from industrial wastewaters but their use in mine applications is limited by low concentrations, large volumes and requirement for pH control. Membrane technologies are similarly poorly-suited to the treatment of large volumes of mine wastewater. Due to their high cost and substantial operational requirements, membrane technologies are generally employed for the production of high-quality water. Sorption techniques have been thoroughly examined for the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from aqueous solution and they offer an attractive alternative. Sorption technologies offer benefits including the relative simplicity of sorption methods, their economy in application and operation, and the low temperature dependence of sorption reactions. Electrochemical methods can be used to convert nitrogenous compounds to a desired form facilitating nitrogen removal as nitrogen gas or as pure ammonia. Thus, these methods offer a temperature-independent alternative for biological nitrogen removal techniques. In addition, electrochemical processes can be run periodically as necessary and no chemical addition is required. Based on a literature review, a combination of sorption and electrochemical techniques is potentially most promising method for the treatment of large volumes of wastewater containing multiple nitrogenous compounds. The performance of both sorption techniques and electrochemistry enhanced ammonia stripping will be further experimentally studied for the attenuation of multiple nitrogenous compounds in mine wastewater.

AB - Mining wastewaters can contain nitrogen from incomplete detonation of nitrogen rich explosives and from nitrogen containing chemicals used in enrichment processes. Nitrogen released to the wastewaters is a potential environmental risk. Nitrogen can be dangerous for aquatic organisms or more prominently cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Nitrogen chemistry is complex, allowing numerous chemical and biological reaction paths and compounds. Various techniques have been investigated for nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions, such as industrial and municipal wastewaters. Many of the technologies currently available are not suited for the treatment of mine wastewaters containing low levels of nitrogenous compounds, due to treatment costs or stringent operating parameters. Although biological methods potentially offer an effective and inexpensive option for the removal of nitrogen from wastewaters, in mine applications these techniques may be limited by the temperature dependence, especially in cold regions. Zero-valent metals can be utilised for passive reduction of nitrate in aqueous solution. However, whilst no external energy is required to facilitate N reduction using zero-valent metals, pH buffering or extremely low pH conditions are required to supply adequate protons for the reduction reaction to proceed. Evaporation and aeration techniques are often used for ammonia removal from industrial wastewaters but their use in mine applications is limited by low concentrations, large volumes and requirement for pH control. Membrane technologies are similarly poorly-suited to the treatment of large volumes of mine wastewater. Due to their high cost and substantial operational requirements, membrane technologies are generally employed for the production of high-quality water. Sorption techniques have been thoroughly examined for the removal of nitrogenous contaminants from aqueous solution and they offer an attractive alternative. Sorption technologies offer benefits including the relative simplicity of sorption methods, their economy in application and operation, and the low temperature dependence of sorption reactions. Electrochemical methods can be used to convert nitrogenous compounds to a desired form facilitating nitrogen removal as nitrogen gas or as pure ammonia. Thus, these methods offer a temperature-independent alternative for biological nitrogen removal techniques. In addition, electrochemical processes can be run periodically as necessary and no chemical addition is required. Based on a literature review, a combination of sorption and electrochemical techniques is potentially most promising method for the treatment of large volumes of wastewater containing multiple nitrogenous compounds. The performance of both sorption techniques and electrochemistry enhanced ammonia stripping will be further experimentally studied for the attenuation of multiple nitrogenous compounds in mine wastewater.

KW - ammonia

KW - nitrate

KW - mine wastewater

KW - treatment technology

KW - nitrogen recovery

KW - nitrogen sources

KW - explosives

M3 - Report

T3 - VTT Technology

BT - Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries

PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

CY - Espoo

ER -

Jermakka J, Wendling L, Sohlberg E, Heinonen H, Merta E, Laine-Ylijoki J et al. Nitrogen compounds at mines and quarries: Sources, behaviour and removal from mine and quarry waters - Literature study. Espoo: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2015. 144 p. (VTT Technology; No. 226).