NO formation tendency characterization for solid fuels in fluidized beds

J. Konttinen (Corresponding Author), Sirpa Kallio, M. Hupa, F. Winter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Usually the standard fuel analysis is not enough to allow for accurate NO emission predictions in large scale fluidized bed combustion. This paper presents NO formation tendency characterization results from novel laboratory measurements in a small-scale fluidized bed combustor. With the special two-stage oxidation method it is possible to eliminate the observed problems of unstable test conditions during rapid pyrolysis of high-volatile fuels in batch combustion. Experimental results of the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO are presented for wide range of fuels, ranging from coal-type fuels to peat, biomasses and wastes. A NO formation tendency database is formed based on the results. The combustion test results show that the cumulative conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO under lean, non-staged fluidized bed combustion is 20–50% (850 °C with O2 in excess). For biomass, peat and wastes, nearly all reactive nitrogen (forming NO) is released from the fuel during pyrolysis. NO formation during char combustion is significant with coal. The data is also compared with corresponding data from literature, with reasonable agreement. The results presented here can be used as inputs for the prediction of NO emission in large-scale fluidized bed boilers with air staging.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-246
Number of pages9
JournalFuel
Volume108
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Fluidized beds
Fluidized bed combustion
Nitrogen
Peat
Coal
Biomass
Pyrolysis
Fluidized bed combustors
Boilers
Oxidation
Air

Keywords

  • characterization
  • fluidized bed combustion
  • fuel nitrogen
  • nitrogen oxides
  • solid fuel

Cite this

Konttinen, J. ; Kallio, Sirpa ; Hupa, M. ; Winter, F. / NO formation tendency characterization for solid fuels in fluidized beds. In: Fuel. 2013 ; Vol. 108. pp. 238-246.
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title = "NO formation tendency characterization for solid fuels in fluidized beds",
abstract = "Usually the standard fuel analysis is not enough to allow for accurate NO emission predictions in large scale fluidized bed combustion. This paper presents NO formation tendency characterization results from novel laboratory measurements in a small-scale fluidized bed combustor. With the special two-stage oxidation method it is possible to eliminate the observed problems of unstable test conditions during rapid pyrolysis of high-volatile fuels in batch combustion. Experimental results of the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO are presented for wide range of fuels, ranging from coal-type fuels to peat, biomasses and wastes. A NO formation tendency database is formed based on the results. The combustion test results show that the cumulative conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO under lean, non-staged fluidized bed combustion is 20–50{\%} (850 °C with O2 in excess). For biomass, peat and wastes, nearly all reactive nitrogen (forming NO) is released from the fuel during pyrolysis. NO formation during char combustion is significant with coal. The data is also compared with corresponding data from literature, with reasonable agreement. The results presented here can be used as inputs for the prediction of NO emission in large-scale fluidized bed boilers with air staging.",
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NO formation tendency characterization for solid fuels in fluidized beds. / Konttinen, J. (Corresponding Author); Kallio, Sirpa; Hupa, M.; Winter, F.

In: Fuel, Vol. 108, 2013, p. 238-246.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - NO formation tendency characterization for solid fuels in fluidized beds

AU - Konttinen, J.

AU - Kallio, Sirpa

AU - Hupa, M.

AU - Winter, F.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Usually the standard fuel analysis is not enough to allow for accurate NO emission predictions in large scale fluidized bed combustion. This paper presents NO formation tendency characterization results from novel laboratory measurements in a small-scale fluidized bed combustor. With the special two-stage oxidation method it is possible to eliminate the observed problems of unstable test conditions during rapid pyrolysis of high-volatile fuels in batch combustion. Experimental results of the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO are presented for wide range of fuels, ranging from coal-type fuels to peat, biomasses and wastes. A NO formation tendency database is formed based on the results. The combustion test results show that the cumulative conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO under lean, non-staged fluidized bed combustion is 20–50% (850 °C with O2 in excess). For biomass, peat and wastes, nearly all reactive nitrogen (forming NO) is released from the fuel during pyrolysis. NO formation during char combustion is significant with coal. The data is also compared with corresponding data from literature, with reasonable agreement. The results presented here can be used as inputs for the prediction of NO emission in large-scale fluidized bed boilers with air staging.

AB - Usually the standard fuel analysis is not enough to allow for accurate NO emission predictions in large scale fluidized bed combustion. This paper presents NO formation tendency characterization results from novel laboratory measurements in a small-scale fluidized bed combustor. With the special two-stage oxidation method it is possible to eliminate the observed problems of unstable test conditions during rapid pyrolysis of high-volatile fuels in batch combustion. Experimental results of the conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO are presented for wide range of fuels, ranging from coal-type fuels to peat, biomasses and wastes. A NO formation tendency database is formed based on the results. The combustion test results show that the cumulative conversion of fuel nitrogen to NO under lean, non-staged fluidized bed combustion is 20–50% (850 °C with O2 in excess). For biomass, peat and wastes, nearly all reactive nitrogen (forming NO) is released from the fuel during pyrolysis. NO formation during char combustion is significant with coal. The data is also compared with corresponding data from literature, with reasonable agreement. The results presented here can be used as inputs for the prediction of NO emission in large-scale fluidized bed boilers with air staging.

KW - characterization

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U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2013.02.011

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