Non-Iterative Downlink Training Sequence Design Based on Sum Rate Maximization in FDD Massive MIMO Systems

Muntadher Alsabah, Mikko Vehkapera, Timothy O'Farrell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
28 Downloads (Pure)


This paper considers the problem of downlink (DL) training sequence design with limited coherence time for frequency division duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems in a general scenario of single-stage precoding and distinct spatial correlations between users. To this end, a computationally feasible solution for designing the DL training sequences is proposed using the principle of linear superposition of sequences constructed from the users’ channel covariance matrices. Based on the non-iterative superposition training structure and the P -degrees of freedom ( P -DoF) channel model, a novel closed-form solution for the optimum training sequence length that maximizes the DL achievable sum rate is provided for the eigenbeamforming (BF) precoder. Additionally, a simplified analysis that characterizes the sum rate performance of the BF and regularized zero forcing (RZF) precoders in closed-form is developed based on the method of random matrix theory and the P -DoF channel model. The results show that the superposition training sequences achieve almost the same rate performances as state-of-the-art training sequence designs. The analysis of the complexity results demonstrates that more than four orders-of-magnitude reduction in the computational complexity is achieved using the superposition training design, which signifies the feasibility of this approach for practical implementations compared with state-of-the-art iterative algorithms for DL training designs. Importantly, the results indicate that the analytical solution for the optimum training sequence length with the P -DoF channel model can be effectively used with high accuracy to predict the sum rate performance in the more realistic one ring (OR) channel model, and thus, near optimal solutions can be readily obtained without resorting to computationally intensive optimization techniques.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9109330
Pages (from-to)108731-108747
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - May 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • training
  • massive MIMO
  • channel estimation
  • correlation
  • coherence time
  • precoding
  • channel models


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