We present an experimental study of the nonlinear behavior of a square-extensional (SE) mode microelectromechanical resonator, actuated with a piezoelectric AlN thin film. The acoustic vibration fields of the device are characterized using laser probing. A nonlinear vibration behavior of the SE mode is observed above a drive power level of −10 dBm such that the vibration amplitude of the SE mode saturates and a rotational in-plane vibration mode is excited at a significantly lower frequency (0.725 MHz) than the SE mode (16.670 MHz). Interestingly, the measured ∼10 nm saturation amplitude of the SE mode is more than a decade below the amplitude value at which mechanical or electromechanical nonlinearities are estimated to become significant.
Lipiäinen, L., Jaakkola, A., Kokkonen, K., & Kaivola, M. (2012). Nonlinear excitation of a rotational mode in a piezoelectrically excited square-extensional mode resonator. Applied Physics Letters, 100(15), . https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3703119