Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids: 1. Round robin test

Anja Oasmaa, Dietrich Meier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

181 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The International Energy Agency-European Union (IEA-EU) round robin test in 2000 was carried out by learning from earlier round robin tests and by employing improved analytical methods. In general, the accuracy of all physical analyses was good for homogenous pyrolysis liquids. For heterogeneous liquids, erroneous results were obtained, especially for kinematic viscosity and stability index. Good laboratory practice, such as proper calibration of equipment, and good background knowledge of the analysis sample, prevents systematic errors. The main conclusions were: Karl-Fischer titration is recommended for analysing water in pyrolysis liquids. the solids content determined as ethanol insolubles is accurate for white wood (stem wood, no bark or needles) liquids, while a more powerful solvent, like a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (1:1 vol.%), is required for extractive-rich liquids from feedstocks such as forest residues. for elemental analysis at least triplicates are recommended due to the small sample size. Special attention should be paid to nitrogen standards. They should have a similar range of nitrogen as the sample. Kinematic viscosity is an accurate method at 40 °C for pyrolysis liquids. Rotating viscotesters with a cover at low temperatures (≤50 °C) can also be used. Stability index needs more specific instructions. Results of chemical characterisation were not very consistent. Proper standard solutions have to be used with known amounts of compounds for quantitative analyses.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323 - 334
JournalJournal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis
Volume73
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Pyrolysis
Liquids
Wood
Nitrogen
Viscosity
Methylene Chloride
Systematic errors
Dichloromethane
Titration
Needles
Feedstocks
Methanol
Ethanol
Calibration
Water
Chemical analysis
Temperature

Keywords

  • round robin test
  • pyrolysis
  • liquids
  • bio-oils
  • biomass
  • characterisation
  • analysis

Cite this

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title = "Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids: 1. Round robin test",
abstract = "The International Energy Agency-European Union (IEA-EU) round robin test in 2000 was carried out by learning from earlier round robin tests and by employing improved analytical methods. In general, the accuracy of all physical analyses was good for homogenous pyrolysis liquids. For heterogeneous liquids, erroneous results were obtained, especially for kinematic viscosity and stability index. Good laboratory practice, such as proper calibration of equipment, and good background knowledge of the analysis sample, prevents systematic errors. The main conclusions were: Karl-Fischer titration is recommended for analysing water in pyrolysis liquids. the solids content determined as ethanol insolubles is accurate for white wood (stem wood, no bark or needles) liquids, while a more powerful solvent, like a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (1:1 vol.{\%}), is required for extractive-rich liquids from feedstocks such as forest residues. for elemental analysis at least triplicates are recommended due to the small sample size. Special attention should be paid to nitrogen standards. They should have a similar range of nitrogen as the sample. Kinematic viscosity is an accurate method at 40 °C for pyrolysis liquids. Rotating viscotesters with a cover at low temperatures (≤50 °C) can also be used. Stability index needs more specific instructions. Results of chemical characterisation were not very consistent. Proper standard solutions have to be used with known amounts of compounds for quantitative analyses.",
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Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids : 1. Round robin test. / Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich.

In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 73, No. 2, 2005, p. 323 - 334.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Norms and standards for fast pyrolysis liquids

T2 - 1. Round robin test

AU - Oasmaa, Anja

AU - Meier, Dietrich

PY - 2005

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AB - The International Energy Agency-European Union (IEA-EU) round robin test in 2000 was carried out by learning from earlier round robin tests and by employing improved analytical methods. In general, the accuracy of all physical analyses was good for homogenous pyrolysis liquids. For heterogeneous liquids, erroneous results were obtained, especially for kinematic viscosity and stability index. Good laboratory practice, such as proper calibration of equipment, and good background knowledge of the analysis sample, prevents systematic errors. The main conclusions were: Karl-Fischer titration is recommended for analysing water in pyrolysis liquids. the solids content determined as ethanol insolubles is accurate for white wood (stem wood, no bark or needles) liquids, while a more powerful solvent, like a mixture of methanol and dichloromethane (1:1 vol.%), is required for extractive-rich liquids from feedstocks such as forest residues. for elemental analysis at least triplicates are recommended due to the small sample size. Special attention should be paid to nitrogen standards. They should have a similar range of nitrogen as the sample. Kinematic viscosity is an accurate method at 40 °C for pyrolysis liquids. Rotating viscotesters with a cover at low temperatures (≤50 °C) can also be used. Stability index needs more specific instructions. Results of chemical characterisation were not very consistent. Proper standard solutions have to be used with known amounts of compounds for quantitative analyses.

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