Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

Miika Mattinen, Jani Hämäläinen, Feng Gao, Pasi Jalkanen, Kenichiro Mizohata, Jyrki Räisänen, Riikka Puurunen, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10559-10569
Number of pages11
JournalLangmuir
Volume32
Issue number41
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Iridium
Atomic layer deposition
atomic layer epitaxy
iridium
Oxide films
Nucleation
nucleation
high aspect ratio
Thin films
oxides
Aspect ratio
thin films
air
Air
Platinum
dioxides
Film thickness
platinum
film thickness
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Mattinen, M., Hämäläinen, J., Gao, F., Jalkanen, P., Mizohata, K., Räisänen, J., ... Leskelä, M. (2016). Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. Langmuir, 32(41), 10559-10569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007
Mattinen, Miika ; Hämäläinen, Jani ; Gao, Feng ; Jalkanen, Pasi ; Mizohata, Kenichiro ; Räisänen, Jyrki ; Puurunen, Riikka ; Ritala, Mikko ; Leskelä, Markku. / Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. In: Langmuir. 2016 ; Vol. 32, No. 41. pp. 10559-10569.
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abstract = "Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.",
author = "Miika Mattinen and Jani H{\"a}m{\"a}l{\"a}inen and Feng Gao and Pasi Jalkanen and Kenichiro Mizohata and Jyrki R{\"a}is{\"a}nen and Riikka Puurunen and Mikko Ritala and Markku Leskel{\"a}",
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Mattinen, M, Hämäläinen, J, Gao, F, Jalkanen, P, Mizohata, K, Räisänen, J, Puurunen, R, Ritala, M & Leskelä, M 2016, 'Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition', Langmuir, vol. 32, no. 41, pp. 10559-10569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007

Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. / Mattinen, Miika; Hämäläinen, Jani; Gao, Feng; Jalkanen, Pasi; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Puurunen, Riikka; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku.

In: Langmuir, Vol. 32, No. 41, 18.10.2016, p. 10559-10569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

AU - Mattinen, Miika

AU - Hämäläinen, Jani

AU - Gao, Feng

AU - Jalkanen, Pasi

AU - Mizohata, Kenichiro

AU - Räisänen, Jyrki

AU - Puurunen, Riikka

AU - Ritala, Mikko

AU - Leskelä, Markku

N1 - Project code: 102086

PY - 2016/10/18

Y1 - 2016/10/18

N2 - Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.

AB - Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.

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U2 - 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007

DO - 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007

M3 - Article

VL - 32

SP - 10559

EP - 10569

JO - Langmuir

JF - Langmuir

SN - 0743-7463

IS - 41

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Mattinen M, Hämäläinen J, Gao F, Jalkanen P, Mizohata K, Räisänen J et al. Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. Langmuir. 2016 Oct 18;32(41):10559-10569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007