Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

Miika Mattinen, Jani Hämäläinen, Feng Gao, Pasi Jalkanen, Kenichiro Mizohata, Jyrki Räisänen, Riikka Puurunen, Mikko Ritala, Markku Leskelä

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    11 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)10559-10569
    Number of pages11
    JournalLangmuir
    Volume32
    Issue number41
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 18 Oct 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Iridium
    Atomic layer deposition
    atomic layer epitaxy
    iridium
    Oxide films
    Nucleation
    nucleation
    high aspect ratio
    Thin films
    oxides
    Aspect ratio
    thin films
    air
    Air
    Platinum
    dioxides
    Film thickness
    platinum
    film thickness
    Deposits

    Cite this

    Mattinen, M., Hämäläinen, J., Gao, F., Jalkanen, P., Mizohata, K., Räisänen, J., ... Leskelä, M. (2016). Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. Langmuir, 32(41), 10559-10569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007
    Mattinen, Miika ; Hämäläinen, Jani ; Gao, Feng ; Jalkanen, Pasi ; Mizohata, Kenichiro ; Räisänen, Jyrki ; Puurunen, Riikka ; Ritala, Mikko ; Leskelä, Markku. / Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. In: Langmuir. 2016 ; Vol. 32, No. 41. pp. 10559-10569.
    @article{75b7861e248e40a9bc50a1e1f6fba0b5,
    title = "Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition",
    abstract = "Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.",
    author = "Miika Mattinen and Jani H{\"a}m{\"a}l{\"a}inen and Feng Gao and Pasi Jalkanen and Kenichiro Mizohata and Jyrki R{\"a}is{\"a}nen and Riikka Puurunen and Mikko Ritala and Markku Leskel{\"a}",
    note = "Project code: 102086",
    year = "2016",
    month = "10",
    day = "18",
    doi = "10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007",
    language = "English",
    volume = "32",
    pages = "10559--10569",
    journal = "Langmuir",
    issn = "0743-7463",
    publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
    number = "41",

    }

    Mattinen, M, Hämäläinen, J, Gao, F, Jalkanen, P, Mizohata, K, Räisänen, J, Puurunen, R, Ritala, M & Leskelä, M 2016, 'Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition', Langmuir, vol. 32, no. 41, pp. 10559-10569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007

    Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. / Mattinen, Miika; Hämäläinen, Jani; Gao, Feng; Jalkanen, Pasi; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Puurunen, Riikka; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku.

    In: Langmuir, Vol. 32, No. 41, 18.10.2016, p. 10559-10569.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    AU - Mattinen, Miika

    AU - Hämäläinen, Jani

    AU - Gao, Feng

    AU - Jalkanen, Pasi

    AU - Mizohata, Kenichiro

    AU - Räisänen, Jyrki

    AU - Puurunen, Riikka

    AU - Ritala, Mikko

    AU - Leskelä, Markku

    N1 - Project code: 102086

    PY - 2016/10/18

    Y1 - 2016/10/18

    N2 - Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.

    AB - Nucleation and conformality are important issues, when depositing thin films for demanding applications. In this study, iridium and iridium dioxide (IrO2) films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), using five different processes. Different reactants, namely, O2, air, consecutive O2 and H2 (O2 + H2), and consecutive O3 and H2 (O3 + H2) pulses were used with iridium acetylacetonate [Ir(acac)3] to deposit Ir, while IrO2 was deposited using Ir(acac)3 and O3. Nucleation was studied using a combination of methods for film thickness and morphology evaluation. In conformality studies, microscopic lateral high-aspect-ratio (LHAR) test structures, specifically designed for accurate and versatile conformality testing of ALD films, were used. The order of nucleation, from the fastest to the slowest, was O2 + H2 > air ~ O2 > O3 > O3 + H2, whereas the order of conformality, from the best to the worst, was O3 + H2 > O2 + H2 > O2 > O3. In the O3 process, a change in film composition from IrO2 to metallic Ir was seen inside the LHAR structures. Compared to the previous reports on ALD of platinum-group metals, most of the studied processes showed good to excellent results.

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84991772112&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    U2 - 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007

    DO - 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007

    M3 - Article

    VL - 32

    SP - 10559

    EP - 10569

    JO - Langmuir

    JF - Langmuir

    SN - 0743-7463

    IS - 41

    ER -

    Mattinen M, Hämäläinen J, Gao F, Jalkanen P, Mizohata K, Räisänen J et al. Nucleation and conformality of iridium and iridium oxide thin films grown by atomic layer deposition. Langmuir. 2016 Oct 18;32(41):10559-10569. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b03007