Nucleation mode formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a particulate filter

Kati Vaaraslahti, Annele Virtanen, Jyrki Ristimäki, Jorma Keskinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

146 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Particle size distribution measurement with direct tailpipe sampling is employed to study the effect of a continuously regenerating diesel paniculate filter (CRDPF) on emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The CRDPF consists of an oxidation catalyst and a filter. Tests are conducted using 2 and 40 ppm sulfur content fuels and two steady-state driving modes. The formation of nucleation mode with and without CRDPF is found to depend on different parameters. Without after-treatment, size distribution is observed to have a nucleation mode only at low load. Being independent of the fuel sulfur level (with these low sulfur level fuels), this nucleation mode is suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With a CRDPF-equipped engine, nucleation mode, which was not observed without CRDPF, was found at high load mode only. This nucleation mode formation was found to correlate positively with fuel sulfur content. It is suggested that sulfuric acid is a main nucleating species in this situation, resulting from the effective conversion of SO2 to SO 3 in the oxidation catalyst. Using a thermodenuder confirms that the nucleation mode particles are semivolatile in nature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4884-4890
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume38
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2004
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Vehicle Emissions
nucleation
diesel
Nucleation
filter
Sulfur
sulfur
catalyst
oxidation
Oxidation
Catalysts
diesel engine
Hydrocarbons
Particle size analysis
sulfuric acid
Diesel engines
engine
particle size
hydrocarbon
Sampling

Cite this

Vaaraslahti, Kati ; Virtanen, Annele ; Ristimäki, Jyrki ; Keskinen, Jorma. / Nucleation mode formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a particulate filter. In: Environmental Science & Technology. 2004 ; Vol. 38, No. 18. pp. 4884-4890.
@article{4723facac5314684bd174a59758a7ca6,
title = "Nucleation mode formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a particulate filter",
abstract = "Particle size distribution measurement with direct tailpipe sampling is employed to study the effect of a continuously regenerating diesel paniculate filter (CRDPF) on emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The CRDPF consists of an oxidation catalyst and a filter. Tests are conducted using 2 and 40 ppm sulfur content fuels and two steady-state driving modes. The formation of nucleation mode with and without CRDPF is found to depend on different parameters. Without after-treatment, size distribution is observed to have a nucleation mode only at low load. Being independent of the fuel sulfur level (with these low sulfur level fuels), this nucleation mode is suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With a CRDPF-equipped engine, nucleation mode, which was not observed without CRDPF, was found at high load mode only. This nucleation mode formation was found to correlate positively with fuel sulfur content. It is suggested that sulfuric acid is a main nucleating species in this situation, resulting from the effective conversion of SO2 to SO 3 in the oxidation catalyst. Using a thermodenuder confirms that the nucleation mode particles are semivolatile in nature.",
author = "Kati Vaaraslahti and Annele Virtanen and Jyrki Ristim{\"a}ki and Jorma Keskinen",
year = "2004",
month = "9",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1021/es0353255",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "4884--4890",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
number = "18",

}

Nucleation mode formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a particulate filter. / Vaaraslahti, Kati; Virtanen, Annele; Ristimäki, Jyrki; Keskinen, Jorma.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, No. 18, 15.09.2004, p. 4884-4890.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nucleation mode formation in heavy-duty diesel exhaust with and without a particulate filter

AU - Vaaraslahti, Kati

AU - Virtanen, Annele

AU - Ristimäki, Jyrki

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

PY - 2004/9/15

Y1 - 2004/9/15

N2 - Particle size distribution measurement with direct tailpipe sampling is employed to study the effect of a continuously regenerating diesel paniculate filter (CRDPF) on emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The CRDPF consists of an oxidation catalyst and a filter. Tests are conducted using 2 and 40 ppm sulfur content fuels and two steady-state driving modes. The formation of nucleation mode with and without CRDPF is found to depend on different parameters. Without after-treatment, size distribution is observed to have a nucleation mode only at low load. Being independent of the fuel sulfur level (with these low sulfur level fuels), this nucleation mode is suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With a CRDPF-equipped engine, nucleation mode, which was not observed without CRDPF, was found at high load mode only. This nucleation mode formation was found to correlate positively with fuel sulfur content. It is suggested that sulfuric acid is a main nucleating species in this situation, resulting from the effective conversion of SO2 to SO 3 in the oxidation catalyst. Using a thermodenuder confirms that the nucleation mode particles are semivolatile in nature.

AB - Particle size distribution measurement with direct tailpipe sampling is employed to study the effect of a continuously regenerating diesel paniculate filter (CRDPF) on emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The CRDPF consists of an oxidation catalyst and a filter. Tests are conducted using 2 and 40 ppm sulfur content fuels and two steady-state driving modes. The formation of nucleation mode with and without CRDPF is found to depend on different parameters. Without after-treatment, size distribution is observed to have a nucleation mode only at low load. Being independent of the fuel sulfur level (with these low sulfur level fuels), this nucleation mode is suggested to form mainly from hydrocarbons. With a CRDPF-equipped engine, nucleation mode, which was not observed without CRDPF, was found at high load mode only. This nucleation mode formation was found to correlate positively with fuel sulfur content. It is suggested that sulfuric acid is a main nucleating species in this situation, resulting from the effective conversion of SO2 to SO 3 in the oxidation catalyst. Using a thermodenuder confirms that the nucleation mode particles are semivolatile in nature.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=4544243690&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/es0353255

DO - 10.1021/es0353255

M3 - Article

C2 - 15487800

AN - SCOPUS:4544243690

VL - 38

SP - 4884

EP - 4890

JO - Environmental Science & Technology

JF - Environmental Science & Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 18

ER -