Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle

T. Rönkkö, A. Virtanen, J. Kannosto, J. Keskinen (Corresponding Author), Maija Lappi, L. Pirjola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

167 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The characteristics of the nucleation mode particles of a Euro IV heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust were studied.
The NOx and PM emissions of the vehicle were controlled through the use of cooled EGR and high-pressure fuel injection techniques; no exhaust gas after-treatment was used. Particle measurements were performed in vehicle laboratory and on road.
Nucleation mode dominated the particle number size distribution in all the tested driving conditions. According to the on-road measurements, the nucleation mode was already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere and no significant changes were observed for longer residence times.
The nucleation mode was insensitive to the fuel sulfur content, dilution air temperature, and relative humidity. An increase in the dilution ratio decreased the size of the nucleation mode particles. This behavior was observed to be linked to the total hydrocarbon concentration in the diluted sample.
In volatility measurements, the nucleation mode particles were observed to have a nonvolatile core with volatile species condensed on it.
The results indicate that the nucleation mode particles have a nonvolatile core formed before the dilution process.
The core particles have grown because of the condensation of semivolatile material, mainly hydrocarbons, during the dilution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6384-6389
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume41
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

nucleation
diesel
Nucleation
Dilution
dilution
Hydrocarbons
residence time
hydrocarbon
road
Vehicle Emissions
Fuel injection
Exhaust gases
particle
vehicle
Sulfur
condensation
relative humidity
Condensation
Atmospheric humidity
air temperature

Keywords

  • diesel
  • diesel engine exhaust
  • diesel exhaust
  • diesel exhaust emission control
  • heavy-duty vehicles
  • particles

Cite this

Rönkkö, T., Virtanen, A., Kannosto, J., Keskinen, J., Lappi, M., & Pirjola, L. (2007). Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle. Environmental Science & Technology, 41(18), 6384-6389. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0705339
Rönkkö, T. ; Virtanen, A. ; Kannosto, J. ; Keskinen, J. ; Lappi, Maija ; Pirjola, L. / Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle. In: Environmental Science & Technology. 2007 ; Vol. 41, No. 18. pp. 6384-6389.
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title = "Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle",
abstract = "The characteristics of the nucleation mode particles of a Euro IV heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust were studied. The NOx and PM emissions of the vehicle were controlled through the use of cooled EGR and high-pressure fuel injection techniques; no exhaust gas after-treatment was used. Particle measurements were performed in vehicle laboratory and on road. Nucleation mode dominated the particle number size distribution in all the tested driving conditions. According to the on-road measurements, the nucleation mode was already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere and no significant changes were observed for longer residence times. The nucleation mode was insensitive to the fuel sulfur content, dilution air temperature, and relative humidity. An increase in the dilution ratio decreased the size of the nucleation mode particles. This behavior was observed to be linked to the total hydrocarbon concentration in the diluted sample. In volatility measurements, the nucleation mode particles were observed to have a nonvolatile core with volatile species condensed on it. The results indicate that the nucleation mode particles have a nonvolatile core formed before the dilution process. The core particles have grown because of the condensation of semivolatile material, mainly hydrocarbons, during the dilution.",
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Rönkkö, T, Virtanen, A, Kannosto, J, Keskinen, J, Lappi, M & Pirjola, L 2007, 'Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle', Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 41, no. 18, pp. 6384-6389. https://doi.org/10.1021/es0705339

Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle. / Rönkkö, T.; Virtanen, A.; Kannosto, J.; Keskinen, J. (Corresponding Author); Lappi, Maija; Pirjola, L.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 41, No. 18, 2007, p. 6384-6389.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nucleation mode particles with a nonvolatile core in the exhaust of a heavy duty diesel vehicle

AU - Rönkkö, T.

AU - Virtanen, A.

AU - Kannosto, J.

AU - Keskinen, J.

AU - Lappi, Maija

AU - Pirjola, L.

PY - 2007

Y1 - 2007

N2 - The characteristics of the nucleation mode particles of a Euro IV heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust were studied. The NOx and PM emissions of the vehicle were controlled through the use of cooled EGR and high-pressure fuel injection techniques; no exhaust gas after-treatment was used. Particle measurements were performed in vehicle laboratory and on road. Nucleation mode dominated the particle number size distribution in all the tested driving conditions. According to the on-road measurements, the nucleation mode was already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere and no significant changes were observed for longer residence times. The nucleation mode was insensitive to the fuel sulfur content, dilution air temperature, and relative humidity. An increase in the dilution ratio decreased the size of the nucleation mode particles. This behavior was observed to be linked to the total hydrocarbon concentration in the diluted sample. In volatility measurements, the nucleation mode particles were observed to have a nonvolatile core with volatile species condensed on it. The results indicate that the nucleation mode particles have a nonvolatile core formed before the dilution process. The core particles have grown because of the condensation of semivolatile material, mainly hydrocarbons, during the dilution.

AB - The characteristics of the nucleation mode particles of a Euro IV heavy-duty diesel vehicle exhaust were studied. The NOx and PM emissions of the vehicle were controlled through the use of cooled EGR and high-pressure fuel injection techniques; no exhaust gas after-treatment was used. Particle measurements were performed in vehicle laboratory and on road. Nucleation mode dominated the particle number size distribution in all the tested driving conditions. According to the on-road measurements, the nucleation mode was already formed after 0.7 s residence time in the atmosphere and no significant changes were observed for longer residence times. The nucleation mode was insensitive to the fuel sulfur content, dilution air temperature, and relative humidity. An increase in the dilution ratio decreased the size of the nucleation mode particles. This behavior was observed to be linked to the total hydrocarbon concentration in the diluted sample. In volatility measurements, the nucleation mode particles were observed to have a nonvolatile core with volatile species condensed on it. The results indicate that the nucleation mode particles have a nonvolatile core formed before the dilution process. The core particles have grown because of the condensation of semivolatile material, mainly hydrocarbons, during the dilution.

KW - diesel

KW - diesel engine exhaust

KW - diesel exhaust

KW - diesel exhaust emission control

KW - heavy-duty vehicles

KW - particles

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