The direct implicit method with a second-order implicit integration scheme is formulated for and applied to the electron parallel nonlinearity in global electrostatic gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of toroidal fusion plasmas. The method shows improved numerical accuracy and stability properties compared to the direct implicit method with a first-order integration scheme. The conservation of total energy and toroidal angular momentum are analyzed by both techniques and the results are presented.
- fusion plasma physics
- gyrokinetic particle simulation
- kinetic electrons
Korpilo, T., Heikkinen, J., Janhunen, S. J., Kiviniemi, T. P., Leerink, S., & Ogando, F. (2013). Numerically stable method for kinetic electrons in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of toroidal plasmas. Journal of Computational Physics, 239, 22-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2012.12.033