Numerically stable method for kinetic electrons in gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulation of toroidal plasmas

T. Korpilo (Corresponding Author), Jukka Heikkinen, S.J. Janhunen, T.P. Kiviniemi, S. Leerink, F. Ogando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The direct implicit method with a second-order implicit integration scheme is formulated for and applied to the electron parallel nonlinearity in global electrostatic gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of toroidal fusion plasmas. The method shows improved numerical accuracy and stability properties compared to the direct implicit method with a first-order integration scheme. The conservation of total energy and toroidal angular momentum are analyzed by both techniques and the results are presented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)22-29
JournalJournal of Computational Physics
Publication statusPublished - 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed



  • fusion plasma physics
  • gyrokinetic particle simulation
  • kinetic electrons

Cite this