Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

Kim Haselmann, Raimo Ketola, Frank Laturnus (Corresponding Author), Frants Lauritsen, Christian Grön

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Ambient air and soil air of spruce forest, beech forest and grassland from Zealand, Denmark, were investigated for volatile chlorinated compounds by adsorbent tube sampling, thermodesorption, cryo-trapping and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The mean concentration of chloroform in the top soil–air was in the range of 0.4–2.3 ng l−1. Compared to ambient air, the chloroform concentration in the topsoil was 6.7, 4.3 and 4.6 times higher for spruce forest, beech forest and grassland, respectively. For tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, the concentrations were in the same order of magnitude (0.04–1.2 ng l−1). However, the concentration ratios between soil air and ambient air were close to unity. Release studies in the topsoil of the spruce forest showed an increase of the chloroform concentration of approximately 4 times the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil layer of spruce forests, whereas an anthropogenic origin is suggested for the other chlorinated compounds investigated. From the release study and concentration gradient measurements in the spruce forest soil, chloroform release to the atmosphere was calculated for northern temperate regions. The release was in the range of the annual anthropogenic chloroform emissions, and, therefore, the terrestrial environment can be considered as an important contributor to the atmospheric chloroform input.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-193
Number of pages7
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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chloroform
soil air
ambient air
topsoil
grassland
tetrachloroethylene
terrestrial environment
trichloroethylene
forest soil
trapping
gas chromatography
electron
atmosphere
sampling

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Haselmann, K., Ketola, R., Laturnus, F., Lauritsen, F., & Grön, C. (1999). Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites. Atmospheric Environment, 34(2), 187-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00279-4
Haselmann, Kim ; Ketola, Raimo ; Laturnus, Frank ; Lauritsen, Frants ; Grön, Christian. / Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites. In: Atmospheric Environment. 1999 ; Vol. 34, No. 2. pp. 187-193.
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Haselmann, K, Ketola, R, Laturnus, F, Lauritsen, F & Grön, C 1999, 'Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites', Atmospheric Environment, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 187-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00279-4

Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites. / Haselmann, Kim; Ketola, Raimo; Laturnus, Frank (Corresponding Author); Lauritsen, Frants; Grön, Christian.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 34, No. 2, 1999, p. 187-193.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

AU - Haselmann, Kim

AU - Ketola, Raimo

AU - Laturnus, Frank

AU - Lauritsen, Frants

AU - Grön, Christian

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Ambient air and soil air of spruce forest, beech forest and grassland from Zealand, Denmark, were investigated for volatile chlorinated compounds by adsorbent tube sampling, thermodesorption, cryo-trapping and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The mean concentration of chloroform in the top soil–air was in the range of 0.4–2.3 ng l−1. Compared to ambient air, the chloroform concentration in the topsoil was 6.7, 4.3 and 4.6 times higher for spruce forest, beech forest and grassland, respectively. For tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, the concentrations were in the same order of magnitude (0.04–1.2 ng l−1). However, the concentration ratios between soil air and ambient air were close to unity. Release studies in the topsoil of the spruce forest showed an increase of the chloroform concentration of approximately 4 times the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil layer of spruce forests, whereas an anthropogenic origin is suggested for the other chlorinated compounds investigated. From the release study and concentration gradient measurements in the spruce forest soil, chloroform release to the atmosphere was calculated for northern temperate regions. The release was in the range of the annual anthropogenic chloroform emissions, and, therefore, the terrestrial environment can be considered as an important contributor to the atmospheric chloroform input.

AB - Ambient air and soil air of spruce forest, beech forest and grassland from Zealand, Denmark, were investigated for volatile chlorinated compounds by adsorbent tube sampling, thermodesorption, cryo-trapping and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The mean concentration of chloroform in the top soil–air was in the range of 0.4–2.3 ng l−1. Compared to ambient air, the chloroform concentration in the topsoil was 6.7, 4.3 and 4.6 times higher for spruce forest, beech forest and grassland, respectively. For tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene, the concentrations were in the same order of magnitude (0.04–1.2 ng l−1). However, the concentration ratios between soil air and ambient air were close to unity. Release studies in the topsoil of the spruce forest showed an increase of the chloroform concentration of approximately 4 times the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil layer of spruce forests, whereas an anthropogenic origin is suggested for the other chlorinated compounds investigated. From the release study and concentration gradient measurements in the spruce forest soil, chloroform release to the atmosphere was calculated for northern temperate regions. The release was in the range of the annual anthropogenic chloroform emissions, and, therefore, the terrestrial environment can be considered as an important contributor to the atmospheric chloroform input.

U2 - 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00279-4

DO - 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00279-4

M3 - Article

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SP - 187

EP - 193

JO - Atmospheric Environment

JF - Atmospheric Environment

SN - 1352-2310

IS - 2

ER -