In this study, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was used for separation of inorganic and organic ions from waters of paper and paperboard machines at mills. The instrument was constructed for on-line measurements by building a batch-type sample feeding unit. Chloride, thiosulphate, sulphate, oxalate, sulphite, hydrogen sulphide, formate, carbonate, phosphate and acetate in the process water samples were separated using an ion-specific separation system in CE with dicarboxylic acid buffer (pH 8.2), with pyridinium-2,3-dicarboxylic acid modified with commercial NICE-Pak OFM-OH solution (pH 12.0) or with a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solution modified with chromate (pH 10.6). In addition, Analis CEofix Anions 8 electrolyte solution was tested in on-line studies at mills. It allowed 5 min separation time for the anions. Aluminium was determined at pH 3.6 in 10 min by using a laboratory-made imidazole buffer modified with 18-crown 6-ether. The developed CE systems were used to monitor the concentrations of sulphur species in dithionite degradation, to estimate corrosion degree in the water tanks, to monitor formaldehyde as the biocide chemical in wire washing and, in general, to observe process disturbances resulting from chemical feedings and their sites. The CE combination was on-line coupled to eight different process machines for continuous monitoring of concentrations for periods between two weeks and one month at paper and pulp mills in Finland.
- process monitoring
- water analysis
- inorganic anions
- organic acids
Kokkonen, R., Sirén, H., Kauliomäki, S., Rovio, S., & Luomanperä, K. (2004). On-line process monitoring of water-soluble ions in pulp and paper machine waters by capillary electrophoresis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1032(1-2), 243-252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2003.09.033