On the mechanisms of environment sensitive cyclic crack growth of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels

Hannu Hänninen, Kari Törrönen, Markku Kemppainen, Seppo Salonen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An analysis of the cyclic crack growth rate data generated so far for pressure vessel materials in simulated light water reactor environments suggests a strong dependence on frequency, load ratio, waveform, temperature and material composition. To account for these observations a mechanistic crack growth model has been advanced based on hydrogen-induced cracking, where anodic dissolution creates the conditions for hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. Hydrogen-induced cracking starts from the manganese sulfide inclusions, which act as strong hydrogen traps. The hydrogen-induced crack growth around the manganese sulfide inclusions generally spans several prior austenite grains. At high hydrogen input rates brittle crack growth also occurs, this being unrelated to inclusions. When the crack growth exposes manganese sulfide inclusions, these dissolve and the crack tip environment becomes aggressive and conducive to hydrogen absorption. This hydrogen-induced cracking model explains why inclusions form a preferred crack path, and accounts for the effect of sulfur on crack growth rate both in PWR and BWR conditions. Based on the model, the observed crack growth rate dependence on different testing variables can also be explained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)663-679
Number of pages17
JournalCorrosion Science
Volume23
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1983
MoE publication typeNot Eligible

Fingerprint

Steel structures
Nuclear reactors
Hydrogen
Crack propagation
Manganese
Crack tips
Light water reactors
Pressure vessels
Sulfur
Austenite
Dissolution
Cracks
Testing
Chemical analysis
Sulfides
manganese sulfide

Keywords

  • nuclear reactors

Cite this

Hänninen, Hannu ; Törrönen, Kari ; Kemppainen, Markku ; Salonen, Seppo. / On the mechanisms of environment sensitive cyclic crack growth of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. In: Corrosion Science. 1983 ; Vol. 23, No. 6. pp. 663-679.
@article{423353ce1c8140f2a2dbe84706536873,
title = "On the mechanisms of environment sensitive cyclic crack growth of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels",
abstract = "An analysis of the cyclic crack growth rate data generated so far for pressure vessel materials in simulated light water reactor environments suggests a strong dependence on frequency, load ratio, waveform, temperature and material composition. To account for these observations a mechanistic crack growth model has been advanced based on hydrogen-induced cracking, where anodic dissolution creates the conditions for hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. Hydrogen-induced cracking starts from the manganese sulfide inclusions, which act as strong hydrogen traps. The hydrogen-induced crack growth around the manganese sulfide inclusions generally spans several prior austenite grains. At high hydrogen input rates brittle crack growth also occurs, this being unrelated to inclusions. When the crack growth exposes manganese sulfide inclusions, these dissolve and the crack tip environment becomes aggressive and conducive to hydrogen absorption. This hydrogen-induced cracking model explains why inclusions form a preferred crack path, and accounts for the effect of sulfur on crack growth rate both in PWR and BWR conditions. Based on the model, the observed crack growth rate dependence on different testing variables can also be explained.",
keywords = "nuclear reactors",
author = "Hannu H{\"a}nninen and Kari T{\"o}rr{\"o}nen and Markku Kemppainen and Seppo Salonen",
year = "1983",
doi = "10.1016/0010-938X(83)90126-9",
language = "English",
volume = "23",
pages = "663--679",
journal = "Corrosion Science",
issn = "0010-938X",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "6",

}

On the mechanisms of environment sensitive cyclic crack growth of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. / Hänninen, Hannu; Törrönen, Kari; Kemppainen, Markku; Salonen, Seppo.

In: Corrosion Science, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1983, p. 663-679.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - On the mechanisms of environment sensitive cyclic crack growth of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels

AU - Hänninen, Hannu

AU - Törrönen, Kari

AU - Kemppainen, Markku

AU - Salonen, Seppo

PY - 1983

Y1 - 1983

N2 - An analysis of the cyclic crack growth rate data generated so far for pressure vessel materials in simulated light water reactor environments suggests a strong dependence on frequency, load ratio, waveform, temperature and material composition. To account for these observations a mechanistic crack growth model has been advanced based on hydrogen-induced cracking, where anodic dissolution creates the conditions for hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. Hydrogen-induced cracking starts from the manganese sulfide inclusions, which act as strong hydrogen traps. The hydrogen-induced crack growth around the manganese sulfide inclusions generally spans several prior austenite grains. At high hydrogen input rates brittle crack growth also occurs, this being unrelated to inclusions. When the crack growth exposes manganese sulfide inclusions, these dissolve and the crack tip environment becomes aggressive and conducive to hydrogen absorption. This hydrogen-induced cracking model explains why inclusions form a preferred crack path, and accounts for the effect of sulfur on crack growth rate both in PWR and BWR conditions. Based on the model, the observed crack growth rate dependence on different testing variables can also be explained.

AB - An analysis of the cyclic crack growth rate data generated so far for pressure vessel materials in simulated light water reactor environments suggests a strong dependence on frequency, load ratio, waveform, temperature and material composition. To account for these observations a mechanistic crack growth model has been advanced based on hydrogen-induced cracking, where anodic dissolution creates the conditions for hydrogen absorption at the crack tip. Hydrogen-induced cracking starts from the manganese sulfide inclusions, which act as strong hydrogen traps. The hydrogen-induced crack growth around the manganese sulfide inclusions generally spans several prior austenite grains. At high hydrogen input rates brittle crack growth also occurs, this being unrelated to inclusions. When the crack growth exposes manganese sulfide inclusions, these dissolve and the crack tip environment becomes aggressive and conducive to hydrogen absorption. This hydrogen-induced cracking model explains why inclusions form a preferred crack path, and accounts for the effect of sulfur on crack growth rate both in PWR and BWR conditions. Based on the model, the observed crack growth rate dependence on different testing variables can also be explained.

KW - nuclear reactors

U2 - 10.1016/0010-938X(83)90126-9

DO - 10.1016/0010-938X(83)90126-9

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 663

EP - 679

JO - Corrosion Science

JF - Corrosion Science

SN - 0010-938X

IS - 6

ER -