On thermal annealing of irradiated PWR pressure vessels

Reijo Pelli, Kari Törrönen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Radiation embrittlement in some pressurised water reactors has been so fast that, in spite of other applied mitigation methods, thermal annealing has been practically the only solution permitting further operation.
The annealings have been reported to be successful and resulted in no damage. In cases where the whole fuel core zone area of the reactor pressure vessel has to be annealed, a fully successful annealing has yet to be convincingly proven. High thermal stresses may make the thermal treatment troublesome to carry out.
The recovery mechanisms have been difficult to study because of the exceptionally small size of irradiation defects. The degree of recovery cannot be yet fully calculated precisely from material and annealing information. Especially the recovery processes in restoring elastic and elastic-plastic fracture toughness properties needs much more work to be carried out in order to be clarified. Recovery annealing at a proper temperature is, however, a very effective method and, in many cases, practically the only alternative for extending the service life of a pressure vessel embrittled by radiation.
There seems to be no restrictions to repeating the thermal treatment, but every pressure vessel should be independently studied and assessed for the achievement of safe results.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1075-1095
JournalInternational Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping
Volume75
Issue number15
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1998
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Pressure vessels
Annealing
Recovery
Heat treatment
Radiation
Pressurized water reactors
Embrittlement
Thermal stress
Service life
Fracture toughness
Hot Temperature
Irradiation
Plastics
Defects
Temperature

Cite this

Pelli, Reijo ; Törrönen, Kari. / On thermal annealing of irradiated PWR pressure vessels. In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping. 1998 ; Vol. 75, No. 15. pp. 1075-1095.
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On thermal annealing of irradiated PWR pressure vessels. / Pelli, Reijo; Törrönen, Kari.

In: International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 75, No. 15, 1998, p. 1075-1095.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Pelli, Reijo

AU - Törrönen, Kari

PY - 1998

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AB - Radiation embrittlement in some pressurised water reactors has been so fast that, in spite of other applied mitigation methods, thermal annealing has been practically the only solution permitting further operation. The annealings have been reported to be successful and resulted in no damage. In cases where the whole fuel core zone area of the reactor pressure vessel has to be annealed, a fully successful annealing has yet to be convincingly proven. High thermal stresses may make the thermal treatment troublesome to carry out. The recovery mechanisms have been difficult to study because of the exceptionally small size of irradiation defects. The degree of recovery cannot be yet fully calculated precisely from material and annealing information. Especially the recovery processes in restoring elastic and elastic-plastic fracture toughness properties needs much more work to be carried out in order to be clarified. Recovery annealing at a proper temperature is, however, a very effective method and, in many cases, practically the only alternative for extending the service life of a pressure vessel embrittled by radiation. There seems to be no restrictions to repeating the thermal treatment, but every pressure vessel should be independently studied and assessed for the achievement of safe results.

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