Operating a full tungsten actively cooled tokamak: Overview of WEST first phase of operation

J. Bucalossi (Corresponding Author), J. Achard, O. Agullo, T. Alarcon, L. Allegretti, H. Ancher, G. Antar, S. Antusch, V. Anzallo, C. Arnas, D. Arranger, J. F. Artaud, M. H. Aumeunier, S. G. Baek, X. Bai, J. Balbin, C. Balorin, T. Barbui, A. Barbuti, J. BarlerinV. Basiuk, T. Batal, O. Baulaigue, A. Bec, M. Bécoulet, E. Benoit, E. Benard, J. M. Benard, N. Bertelli, E. Bertrand, P. Beyer, J. Bielecki, P. Bienvenu, R. Bisson, V. Bobkov, G. Bodner, C. Bottereau, C. Bouchand, F. Bouquey, C. Bourdelle, J. Bourg, S. Brezinsek, F. Brochard, C. Brun, V. Bruno, H. Bufferand, A. Bureau, S. Burles, Y. Camenen, Antti Hakola

Research output: Contribution to journalReview Articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


WEST is an MA class superconducting, actively cooled, full tungsten (W) tokamak, designed to operate in long pulses up to 1000 s. In support of ITER operation and DEMO conceptual activities, key missions of WEST are: (i) qualification of high heat flux plasma-facing components in integrating both technological and physics aspects in relevant heat and particle exhaust conditions, particularly for the tungsten monoblocks foreseen in ITER divertor; (ii) integrated steady-state operation at high confinement, with a focus on power exhaust issues. During the phase 1 of operation (2017-2020), a set of actively cooled ITER-grade plasma facing unit prototypes was integrated into the inertially cooled W coated startup lower divertor. Up to 8.8 MW of RF power has been coupled to the plasma and divertor heat flux of up to 6 MW m-2 were reached. Long pulse operation was started, using the upper actively cooled divertor, with a discharge of about 1 min achieved. This paper gives an overview of the results achieved in phase 1. Perspectives for phase 2, operating with the full capability of the device with the complete ITER-grade actively cooled lower divertor, are also described.

Original languageEnglish
Article number042007
Number of pages17
JournalNuclear Fusion
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2022
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium and the French Research Federation for Fusion Studies and has received funding from the Euratom Research and Training Programme 2014–2018 and 2019–2020 under Grant Agreement No. 633053.


  • DEMO
  • divertor
  • ITER
  • magnetic confinement
  • nuclear fusion
  • tokamak physics
  • WEST


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