Opportunities for mesoscopics in thermometry and refrigeration: Physics and applications

Francesco Giazotto, Tero T. Heikkilä, Arttu Luukanen, Alexander M. Savin, Jukka P. Pekola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

880 Citations (Scopus)


This review describes unique thermal properties of mesoscopic structures with sizes between atomic and macroscopic scales, and how they can be applied to thermometry, refrigeration, and thermal detection. The emphasis is on low temperatures where physical phenomena on mesoscopic length scales in conjunction with hybrid combinations of superconductors, insulators, normal metals, and doped semiconductors create opportunities for a rich variety of novel device concepts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-274
JournalReviews of Modern Physics
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • thermometers
  • refrigeration
  • mesoscopic systems
  • electron gas
  • relaxation
  • electron-phonon interactions
  • superconducting devices
  • metals
  • insulators
  • semiconductors
  • thermal properties


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