Optics, detectors and ground-based star spectra measurements of the GOMOS Spectro-A Bench Model: Dissertation

    Research output: ThesisDissertationMonograph

    Abstract

    In this thesis the performance of the GOMOS instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observing satellite of the European Space Agency has been studied. The emphasis has been on the characterization of the critical subsystem consisting of the main telescope, the two monochromator options, and the CCD-detector. Three test systems have been designed, tested, and used for the performance analysis of GOMOS: a Spectro-A Bench Model, a CCD characterization system, and a measurement system for a holographic imaging grating. On the basis of the Bench Model and the CCD detector, a ground-based star spectra measurement system called Startrek was designed and built. The first setup, a Bench Model of one channel of the GOMOS instrument, was used to measure the imaging quality of this medium resolution spectrometer. However, the performance of the Bench Model as implemented here was not yet sufficient for GOMOS because of the difficulties in producing the mirrors of the instrument. The theoretical performance is quite good and should be attainable with more careful production of the mirrors. The measured spectral resolution and transmittance were adequate for use as a ground-based star spectrometer. The characterization of the GOMOS back-up CCD-chip has been carried out for the linearity, charge spill-over, quantum efficiency, and sensitivity variation within one pixel. The sensitivity variations within one pixel were measured by a 2-dimensional scan, where the light spot and the scan step were small compared to the pixel size. The results showed large sensitivity variations within each pixel. An analytical, 2-dimensional, spatial pixel sensitivity function for the modeling of these variations has been formulated for the first time for this type of CCD on the basis of the measurement results. This function can be used for correction of the modern CCD-spectrometer data for instrument effects. A system like the UVIS Spectrometer Breadboard developed in this work has not previously been used for imaging quality measurements of concave, holographic gratings. It delivers ten times higher mechanical accuracy for the integration of the grating into the spectrometer than the geometrical data provided by the manufacturer. It was used to measure spectral efficiencies and imaging properties of two different gratings. The results of imaging measurements were used in the evaluation of the GOMOS instrument performance. According to these results the spectral resolution of neither grating is adequate for the instrument and further optimization of the grating is necessary. The measured spectral efficiency of the triangular profile grating meets the instrument requirements at the UVIS-band. The Startrek visible imaging spectrometer can be used for an end-to-end concept validation of the star occultation principle. It demonstrates that the pointing system of the instrument keeps the image of a star inside the slit and that the spectrometer measures the star spectra successfully. The measurement data of bright stars has been used for the validation of the data analysis procedures of the satellite instrument and for total ozone column measurements. The ozone retrieval using two spectra measured at different altitudes has been performed and the total ozone columns calculated from the Startrek spectra were in agreement with the results of TOMS satellite and the Russian Filter Instrument M-124 measurements made on the same day close to the Startrek measurement site.
    Original languageEnglish
    QualificationDoctor Degree
    Awarding Institution
    • Helsinki University of Technology
    Award date20 Dec 1995
    Place of PublicationEspoo
    Publisher
    Print ISBNs951-38-4790-X
    Publication statusPublished - 1995
    MoE publication typeG4 Doctoral dissertation (monograph)

    Fingerprint

    seats
    optics
    stars
    charge coupled devices
    detectors
    gratings
    spectrometers
    pixels
    ozone
    sensitivity
    spectral resolution
    mirrors
    satellite instruments
    Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
    theses
    imaging spectrometers
    occultation
    monochromators
    European Space Agency
    retrieval

    Keywords

    • optics
    • detectors
    • monochromators
    • ozone
    • stratosphere
    • stellar occultation
    • imaging spectrometers
    • CCD-detectors
    • remote sensing
    • holographic gratings

    Cite this

    @phdthesis{4b4b1675629e4f25baefd35edb775c69,
    title = "Optics, detectors and ground-based star spectra measurements of the GOMOS Spectro-A Bench Model: Dissertation",
    abstract = "In this thesis the performance of the GOMOS instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observing satellite of the European Space Agency has been studied. The emphasis has been on the characterization of the critical subsystem consisting of the main telescope, the two monochromator options, and the CCD-detector. Three test systems have been designed, tested, and used for the performance analysis of GOMOS: a Spectro-A Bench Model, a CCD characterization system, and a measurement system for a holographic imaging grating. On the basis of the Bench Model and the CCD detector, a ground-based star spectra measurement system called Startrek was designed and built. The first setup, a Bench Model of one channel of the GOMOS instrument, was used to measure the imaging quality of this medium resolution spectrometer. However, the performance of the Bench Model as implemented here was not yet sufficient for GOMOS because of the difficulties in producing the mirrors of the instrument. The theoretical performance is quite good and should be attainable with more careful production of the mirrors. The measured spectral resolution and transmittance were adequate for use as a ground-based star spectrometer. The characterization of the GOMOS back-up CCD-chip has been carried out for the linearity, charge spill-over, quantum efficiency, and sensitivity variation within one pixel. The sensitivity variations within one pixel were measured by a 2-dimensional scan, where the light spot and the scan step were small compared to the pixel size. The results showed large sensitivity variations within each pixel. An analytical, 2-dimensional, spatial pixel sensitivity function for the modeling of these variations has been formulated for the first time for this type of CCD on the basis of the measurement results. This function can be used for correction of the modern CCD-spectrometer data for instrument effects. A system like the UVIS Spectrometer Breadboard developed in this work has not previously been used for imaging quality measurements of concave, holographic gratings. It delivers ten times higher mechanical accuracy for the integration of the grating into the spectrometer than the geometrical data provided by the manufacturer. It was used to measure spectral efficiencies and imaging properties of two different gratings. The results of imaging measurements were used in the evaluation of the GOMOS instrument performance. According to these results the spectral resolution of neither grating is adequate for the instrument and further optimization of the grating is necessary. The measured spectral efficiency of the triangular profile grating meets the instrument requirements at the UVIS-band. The Startrek visible imaging spectrometer can be used for an end-to-end concept validation of the star occultation principle. It demonstrates that the pointing system of the instrument keeps the image of a star inside the slit and that the spectrometer measures the star spectra successfully. The measurement data of bright stars has been used for the validation of the data analysis procedures of the satellite instrument and for total ozone column measurements. The ozone retrieval using two spectra measured at different altitudes has been performed and the total ozone columns calculated from the Startrek spectra were in agreement with the results of TOMS satellite and the Russian Filter Instrument M-124 measurements made on the same day close to the Startrek measurement site.",
    keywords = "optics, detectors, monochromators, ozone, stratosphere, stellar occultation, imaging spectrometers, CCD-detectors, remote sensing, holographic gratings",
    author = "Heikki Saari",
    note = "Project code: A5SU00238",
    year = "1995",
    language = "English",
    isbn = "951-38-4790-X",
    series = "VTT Publications",
    publisher = "VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland",
    number = "252",
    address = "Finland",
    school = "Helsinki University of Technology",

    }

    Optics, detectors and ground-based star spectra measurements of the GOMOS Spectro-A Bench Model : Dissertation. / Saari, Heikki.

    Espoo : VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 1995. 182 p.

    Research output: ThesisDissertationMonograph

    TY - THES

    T1 - Optics, detectors and ground-based star spectra measurements of the GOMOS Spectro-A Bench Model

    T2 - Dissertation

    AU - Saari, Heikki

    N1 - Project code: A5SU00238

    PY - 1995

    Y1 - 1995

    N2 - In this thesis the performance of the GOMOS instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observing satellite of the European Space Agency has been studied. The emphasis has been on the characterization of the critical subsystem consisting of the main telescope, the two monochromator options, and the CCD-detector. Three test systems have been designed, tested, and used for the performance analysis of GOMOS: a Spectro-A Bench Model, a CCD characterization system, and a measurement system for a holographic imaging grating. On the basis of the Bench Model and the CCD detector, a ground-based star spectra measurement system called Startrek was designed and built. The first setup, a Bench Model of one channel of the GOMOS instrument, was used to measure the imaging quality of this medium resolution spectrometer. However, the performance of the Bench Model as implemented here was not yet sufficient for GOMOS because of the difficulties in producing the mirrors of the instrument. The theoretical performance is quite good and should be attainable with more careful production of the mirrors. The measured spectral resolution and transmittance were adequate for use as a ground-based star spectrometer. The characterization of the GOMOS back-up CCD-chip has been carried out for the linearity, charge spill-over, quantum efficiency, and sensitivity variation within one pixel. The sensitivity variations within one pixel were measured by a 2-dimensional scan, where the light spot and the scan step were small compared to the pixel size. The results showed large sensitivity variations within each pixel. An analytical, 2-dimensional, spatial pixel sensitivity function for the modeling of these variations has been formulated for the first time for this type of CCD on the basis of the measurement results. This function can be used for correction of the modern CCD-spectrometer data for instrument effects. A system like the UVIS Spectrometer Breadboard developed in this work has not previously been used for imaging quality measurements of concave, holographic gratings. It delivers ten times higher mechanical accuracy for the integration of the grating into the spectrometer than the geometrical data provided by the manufacturer. It was used to measure spectral efficiencies and imaging properties of two different gratings. The results of imaging measurements were used in the evaluation of the GOMOS instrument performance. According to these results the spectral resolution of neither grating is adequate for the instrument and further optimization of the grating is necessary. The measured spectral efficiency of the triangular profile grating meets the instrument requirements at the UVIS-band. The Startrek visible imaging spectrometer can be used for an end-to-end concept validation of the star occultation principle. It demonstrates that the pointing system of the instrument keeps the image of a star inside the slit and that the spectrometer measures the star spectra successfully. The measurement data of bright stars has been used for the validation of the data analysis procedures of the satellite instrument and for total ozone column measurements. The ozone retrieval using two spectra measured at different altitudes has been performed and the total ozone columns calculated from the Startrek spectra were in agreement with the results of TOMS satellite and the Russian Filter Instrument M-124 measurements made on the same day close to the Startrek measurement site.

    AB - In this thesis the performance of the GOMOS instrument for the ENVISAT Earth observing satellite of the European Space Agency has been studied. The emphasis has been on the characterization of the critical subsystem consisting of the main telescope, the two monochromator options, and the CCD-detector. Three test systems have been designed, tested, and used for the performance analysis of GOMOS: a Spectro-A Bench Model, a CCD characterization system, and a measurement system for a holographic imaging grating. On the basis of the Bench Model and the CCD detector, a ground-based star spectra measurement system called Startrek was designed and built. The first setup, a Bench Model of one channel of the GOMOS instrument, was used to measure the imaging quality of this medium resolution spectrometer. However, the performance of the Bench Model as implemented here was not yet sufficient for GOMOS because of the difficulties in producing the mirrors of the instrument. The theoretical performance is quite good and should be attainable with more careful production of the mirrors. The measured spectral resolution and transmittance were adequate for use as a ground-based star spectrometer. The characterization of the GOMOS back-up CCD-chip has been carried out for the linearity, charge spill-over, quantum efficiency, and sensitivity variation within one pixel. The sensitivity variations within one pixel were measured by a 2-dimensional scan, where the light spot and the scan step were small compared to the pixel size. The results showed large sensitivity variations within each pixel. An analytical, 2-dimensional, spatial pixel sensitivity function for the modeling of these variations has been formulated for the first time for this type of CCD on the basis of the measurement results. This function can be used for correction of the modern CCD-spectrometer data for instrument effects. A system like the UVIS Spectrometer Breadboard developed in this work has not previously been used for imaging quality measurements of concave, holographic gratings. It delivers ten times higher mechanical accuracy for the integration of the grating into the spectrometer than the geometrical data provided by the manufacturer. It was used to measure spectral efficiencies and imaging properties of two different gratings. The results of imaging measurements were used in the evaluation of the GOMOS instrument performance. According to these results the spectral resolution of neither grating is adequate for the instrument and further optimization of the grating is necessary. The measured spectral efficiency of the triangular profile grating meets the instrument requirements at the UVIS-band. The Startrek visible imaging spectrometer can be used for an end-to-end concept validation of the star occultation principle. It demonstrates that the pointing system of the instrument keeps the image of a star inside the slit and that the spectrometer measures the star spectra successfully. The measurement data of bright stars has been used for the validation of the data analysis procedures of the satellite instrument and for total ozone column measurements. The ozone retrieval using two spectra measured at different altitudes has been performed and the total ozone columns calculated from the Startrek spectra were in agreement with the results of TOMS satellite and the Russian Filter Instrument M-124 measurements made on the same day close to the Startrek measurement site.

    KW - optics

    KW - detectors

    KW - monochromators

    KW - ozone

    KW - stratosphere

    KW - stellar occultation

    KW - imaging spectrometers

    KW - CCD-detectors

    KW - remote sensing

    KW - holographic gratings

    M3 - Dissertation

    SN - 951-38-4790-X

    T3 - VTT Publications

    PB - VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

    CY - Espoo

    ER -