Optimal and skyhook: Controlled suspension for a 4-axle heavy off-road vehicle

P. Kroneld, T. Liedes, Kalervo Nevala

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper deals with advanced suspension systems of heavy vehicles. An analytical 6-DOF heavy off-road vehicle model was developed and applied to study the behavior of semiactive skyhook, groundhook and hybrid control schemes. Controllers were coded as on/off - controllers and were compared with continuous optimally controlled semi-active and optimally controlled fully-active suspension systems. Actuators were assumed to be ideal. In derivation controllers' frequency domain analysis was used. The actual simulation runs with different suspension systems were carried out with random road excitation modeled from the desired spectral characteristics. RMS values were calculated from body heave and pitch acceleration. Vibration signal was also filtered with IS02631 frequency weighting to calculate the frequencyweighted acceleration RMS values. Calculated RMS values were used as a measure of passenger/driver comfort. Tire deflection was used as a measure of vehicle handling. These parameters and comparison of different controllers are presented as a result. The values for a conventional, passive suspension are also presented and compared to advanced suspension systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)400-406
JournalJournal of Vibroengineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2009
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • active suspension
  • optimal control
  • semi-active suspension
  • skyhook control
  • vehicle vibrations


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