Optimisation of acetic acid lignofibre organosolv process

Heli Kangas (Corresponding Author), Terhi K. Hakala, Tarja Tamminen, Marjo Määttänen, Stella Rovio, Tiina Liitiä, Kristiina Poppius-Levlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Birch wood chips were cooked in acetic acid in the presence of phosphinic acid according to the Lignofibre (LGF) organosolv process. The cooking trials were performed according to an experimental design with process time, temperature, and the presence (or absence) of alkaline pre-extraction as the factors. Delignification was enhanced by increased temperature and alkaline pre-extraction. Alkaline extraction also limited xylose hydrolysis, as well as the further degradation of xylose into furfural. Degradation and condensation reactions began to take place between dissolved carbohydrates and lignin at higher temperatures and longer cooking times. Formation of pseudolignin, most likely because of reactions between lignin and furfural, was also observed under the harshest cooking conditions. To avoid these unwanted side-reactions, minimise viscosity losses, and preserve the yield, the LGF process time should be limited to 3 to 4 h at 150 °C.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2699-2718
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • acetic acid
  • alkaline extraction
  • furfural
  • lignofibre
  • organosolv process
  • phosphinic acid
  • pseudolignin
  • xylose


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