The aim of the study was to determine optimum sourdough process conditions for improved flavour and texture of wheat bread. The influence of process conditions and the starter culture on the characteristics of wheat sourdough bread was established by using response surface methodology. Influence of fermentation temperature (16–32 °C), ash content of flour (0.6–1.8 g/100 g), and fermentation time (6–20 h) were considered as independent factors and their effects were studied in sourdough bread fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae or with a combination of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. Intensity of sensory attributes, specific volume and bread hardness were considered as the main responses. Ash content of flour and fermentation time were the main factors determining the intensity of sensory attributes. The possibility to enhance intensity of overall flavour, aftertaste and roasted flavour without excessive pungent flavour and without reduced fresh flavour in wheat bread containing 20 g sourdough/100 g of wheat dough was demonstrated by choosing e.g. Lb. brevis for a starter and by utilization of high ash content of flour, long fermentation time and reduced temperature. Bread specific volume was improved 0.2–0.5 ml/g and hardness was reduced (after 4 days of storage) up to 260 g by using low ash content of flour and by optimizing fermentation time according to the microbial strain. Lactic acid fermentation had more profound influence on both desired and undesired flavour attributes, as well as textural features of bread in comparison with yeast fermentation.
- Sensory profile
Katina, K., Heiniö, R-L., Autio, K., & Poutanen, K. (2006). Optimization of sourdough process for improved sensory profile and texture of wheat bread. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 39(10), 1189-1202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2005.08.001