Optimization of wireless sensors based on intermodulation communication

Jinsong Song, Ville Viikari, Nadine Pesonen, Ilkka Marttila, Heikki Seppä

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)


    Intermodulation communication principle has been recently developed to wirelessly read-out passive sensors. Intermodulation communication sensors reply the sensor information at an intermodulation frequency when interrogated by a reader device with two tones. This paper derives an analytical expression for optimizing the electrical circuitry of such a sensor. The derived equations are verified by harmonic balance simulations. An optimized sensor is designed and fabricated and experimentally characterized. Results show that 1% change in the sensor capacitance can still be detected at a 13 m-distance and the read-out principle could enable an extreme resolution at shorter distances (less than per mille below 5 m). A wireless electrocardiography measurement is demonstrated.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)3446-3452
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
    Issue number9
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • intermodulation
    • mixers
    • RF identification (RFID)
    • wireless sensors


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