Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions

Juhani Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Jari Suominen, Mika P.A. Anttonen

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

    Abstract

    VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of XIX ISAF
    Place of PublicationVerona, Italy
    PublisherUniversity of Florence
    Number of pages7
    Publication statusPublished - 2011
    MoE publication typeNot Eligible
    EventXIX International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, ISAF 2011 - Verona, Italy
    Duration: 10 Oct 201114 Oct 2011
    Conference number: 19

    Conference

    ConferenceXIX International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, ISAF 2011
    Abbreviated titleISAF 2011
    CountryItaly
    CityVerona
    Period10/10/1114/10/11

    Fingerprint

    Ethanol fuels
    Chemical analysis
    Ethanol
    Temperature
    Bioethanol
    Butane
    Aldehydes
    Vapor pressure
    Butenes
    Hydrocarbons
    Industry

    Keywords

    • E85
    • cold ambient conditions
    • fuel composition
    • exhaust emissions
    • waste-to-fuel

    Cite this

    Laurikko, J., Nylund, N-O., Suominen, J., & Anttonen, M. P. A. (2011). Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. In Proceedings of XIX ISAF [Paper T6.5C] Verona, Italy: University of Florence.
    Laurikko, Juhani ; Nylund, Nils-Olof ; Suominen, Jari ; Anttonen, Mika P.A. / Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. Proceedings of XIX ISAF. Verona, Italy : University of Florence, 2011.
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    title = "Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions",
    abstract = "VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 {\%} of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 {\%} ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with {"}straight{"} E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more {"}engineered{"} fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to {"}straight{"} E85 fuel.",
    keywords = "E85, cold ambient conditions, fuel composition, exhaust emissions, waste-to-fuel",
    author = "Juhani Laurikko and Nils-Olof Nylund and Jari Suominen and Anttonen, {Mika P.A.}",
    note = "Project code: 37937",
    year = "2011",
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    booktitle = "Proceedings of XIX ISAF",
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    Laurikko, J, Nylund, N-O, Suominen, J & Anttonen, MPA 2011, Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. in Proceedings of XIX ISAF., Paper T6.5C, University of Florence, Verona, Italy, XIX International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, ISAF 2011, Verona, Italy, 10/10/11.

    Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. / Laurikko, Juhani; Nylund, Nils-Olof; Suominen, Jari; Anttonen, Mika P.A.

    Proceedings of XIX ISAF. Verona, Italy : University of Florence, 2011. Paper T6.5C.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

    TY - GEN

    T1 - Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions

    AU - Laurikko, Juhani

    AU - Nylund, Nils-Olof

    AU - Suominen, Jari

    AU - Anttonen, Mika P.A.

    N1 - Project code: 37937

    PY - 2011

    Y1 - 2011

    N2 - VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel.

    AB - VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel.

    KW - E85

    KW - cold ambient conditions

    KW - fuel composition

    KW - exhaust emissions

    KW - waste-to-fuel

    M3 - Conference article in proceedings

    BT - Proceedings of XIX ISAF

    PB - University of Florence

    CY - Verona, Italy

    ER -

    Laurikko J, Nylund N-O, Suominen J, Anttonen MPA. Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. In Proceedings of XIX ISAF. Verona, Italy: University of Florence. 2011. Paper T6.5C