Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions

Juhani Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund, Jari Suominen, Mika P.A. Anttonen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of XIX ISAF
Place of PublicationVerona, Italy
PublisherUniversity of Florence
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2011
MoE publication typeNot Eligible
EventXIX International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, ISAF 2011 - Verona, Italy
Duration: 10 Oct 201114 Oct 2011
Conference number: 19

Conference

ConferenceXIX International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, ISAF 2011
Abbreviated titleISAF 2011
CountryItaly
CityVerona
Period10/10/1114/10/11

Fingerprint

Ethanol fuels
Chemical analysis
Ethanol
Temperature
Bioethanol
Butane
Aldehydes
Vapor pressure
Butenes
Hydrocarbons
Industry

Keywords

  • E85
  • cold ambient conditions
  • fuel composition
  • exhaust emissions
  • waste-to-fuel

Cite this

Laurikko, J., Nylund, N-O., Suominen, J., & Anttonen, M. P. A. (2011). Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. In Proceedings of XIX ISAF [Paper T6.5C] Verona, Italy: University of Florence.
Laurikko, Juhani ; Nylund, Nils-Olof ; Suominen, Jari ; Anttonen, Mika P.A. / Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. Proceedings of XIX ISAF. Verona, Italy : University of Florence, 2011.
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title = "Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions",
abstract = "VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 {\%} of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 {\%} ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with {"}straight{"} E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more {"}engineered{"} fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to {"}straight{"} E85 fuel.",
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Laurikko, J, Nylund, N-O, Suominen, J & Anttonen, MPA 2011, Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. in Proceedings of XIX ISAF., Paper T6.5C, University of Florence, Verona, Italy, XIX International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, ISAF 2011, Verona, Italy, 10/10/11.

Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. / Laurikko, Juhani; Nylund, Nils-Olof; Suominen, Jari; Anttonen, Mika P.A.

Proceedings of XIX ISAF. Verona, Italy : University of Florence, 2011. Paper T6.5C.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions

AU - Laurikko, Juhani

AU - Nylund, Nils-Olof

AU - Suominen, Jari

AU - Anttonen, Mika P.A.

N1 - Project code: 37937

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel.

AB - VTT has together with the Finnish energy company St1 tested different high-volume ethanol fuel (E85) samples in order to find the optimum composition for this fuel to perform satisfactorily in low ambient temperature driving conditions encountered in Finland quite frequently during the winter season. Altogether seven different fuel compositions were evaluated, with 70 to 85 % of anhydrous bioethanol, and various different mixes of regular petrol components and some specific species like ETBE, butane, iso-butanol etc. As a reference, new Euro-quality 95E10 petrol with 10 % ethanol was used. Fuel vapour pressure of each sample was adjusted according to test temperatures to match summer or winter condition and ensure effortless start-up. Test results showed that the composition of the fuel had marked influence on emissions. The lower the test temperature was, the more distinctive were the differences. Based on the results, about -15 °C would be the lower limit of operation with "straight" E85 mixture composed ethanol and petrol. On the other hand the more "engineered" fuels performed much better, and allowed starting as low as at -20 to -25 °C. Cold start and driving was possible at equal level of unburned hydrocarbons and other unwanted emissions (aldehydes, ethanol) at an ambient temperature more than 10 °C lower compared to "straight" E85 fuel.

KW - E85

KW - cold ambient conditions

KW - fuel composition

KW - exhaust emissions

KW - waste-to-fuel

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

BT - Proceedings of XIX ISAF

PB - University of Florence

CY - Verona, Italy

ER -

Laurikko J, Nylund N-O, Suominen J, Anttonen MPA. Optimizing high-volume ethanol fuel composition for cold driving conditions. In Proceedings of XIX ISAF. Verona, Italy: University of Florence. 2011. Paper T6.5C