Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester

Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies

J. K. Baral (Corresponding Author), H. S. Majumdar, A. Laiho, Hua Jiang, Esko I. Kauppinen, R. H. A. Ras, J. Ruokolainen, O. Ikkala, R. Österbacka (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (<10 wt%) of PCBM in PS. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the device cross-sections indicated that the thermal evaporation of the Al electrodes did not lead to the inclusion of Al metal nanoparticles into the active PCBM:PS film. Above a threshold voltage of <3 V, independent of thickness, a consistent negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in devices in the thickness range from 200 to 350 nm made from solutions with 4–10 wt% of PCBM in PS. We found that the threshold voltage (Vth) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (Vmax) and the voltage at minimum current density (Vmin) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at Vmax and Vmin is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K.
Original languageEnglish
Article number035203
Number of pages7
JournalNanotechnology
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Butyric acid
Butyric Acid
Polystyrenes
Esters
Data storage equipment
Current density
Aluminum
Threshold voltage
Fullerenes
Electrodes
Molecules
Thermal evaporation
Metal nanoparticles
Electric potential
(6,6)-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester
Spectroscopy
Transmission electron microscopy
Derivatives
X rays

Keywords

  • organic memory
  • organic electronics
  • PCBM
  • butyric
  • methyl ester
  • c60
  • fullerenes

Cite this

Baral, J. K., Majumdar, H. S., Laiho, A., Jiang, H., Kauppinen, E. I., Ras, R. H. A., ... Österbacka, R. (2008). Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies. Nanotechnology, 19(3), [035203]. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/19/03/035203
Baral, J. K. ; Majumdar, H. S. ; Laiho, A. ; Jiang, Hua ; Kauppinen, Esko I. ; Ras, R. H. A. ; Ruokolainen, J. ; Ikkala, O. ; Österbacka, R. / Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester : Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies. In: Nanotechnology. 2008 ; Vol. 19, No. 3.
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title = "Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies",
abstract = "We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (<10 wt{\%}) of PCBM in PS. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the device cross-sections indicated that the thermal evaporation of the Al electrodes did not lead to the inclusion of Al metal nanoparticles into the active PCBM:PS film. Above a threshold voltage of <3 V, independent of thickness, a consistent negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in devices in the thickness range from 200 to 350 nm made from solutions with 4–10 wt{\%} of PCBM in PS. We found that the threshold voltage (Vth) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (Vmax) and the voltage at minimum current density (Vmin) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at Vmax and Vmin is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K.",
keywords = "organic memory, organic electronics, PCBM, butyric, methyl ester, c60, fullerenes",
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Baral, JK, Majumdar, HS, Laiho, A, Jiang, H, Kauppinen, EI, Ras, RHA, Ruokolainen, J, Ikkala, O & Österbacka, R 2008, 'Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies', Nanotechnology, vol. 19, no. 3, 035203. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/19/03/035203

Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester : Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies. / Baral, J. K. (Corresponding Author); Majumdar, H. S.; Laiho, A.; Jiang, Hua; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Ras, R. H. A.; Ruokolainen, J.; Ikkala, O.; Österbacka, R. (Corresponding Author).

In: Nanotechnology, Vol. 19, No. 3, 035203, 2008.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester

T2 - Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies

AU - Baral, J. K.

AU - Majumdar, H. S.

AU - Laiho, A.

AU - Jiang, Hua

AU - Kauppinen, Esko I.

AU - Ras, R. H. A.

AU - Ruokolainen, J.

AU - Ikkala, O.

AU - Österbacka, R.

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (<10 wt%) of PCBM in PS. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the device cross-sections indicated that the thermal evaporation of the Al electrodes did not lead to the inclusion of Al metal nanoparticles into the active PCBM:PS film. Above a threshold voltage of <3 V, independent of thickness, a consistent negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in devices in the thickness range from 200 to 350 nm made from solutions with 4–10 wt% of PCBM in PS. We found that the threshold voltage (Vth) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (Vmax) and the voltage at minimum current density (Vmin) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at Vmax and Vmin is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K.

AB - We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (<10 wt%) of PCBM in PS. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the device cross-sections indicated that the thermal evaporation of the Al electrodes did not lead to the inclusion of Al metal nanoparticles into the active PCBM:PS film. Above a threshold voltage of <3 V, independent of thickness, a consistent negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in devices in the thickness range from 200 to 350 nm made from solutions with 4–10 wt% of PCBM in PS. We found that the threshold voltage (Vth) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (Vmax) and the voltage at minimum current density (Vmin) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at Vmax and Vmin is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K.

KW - organic memory

KW - organic electronics

KW - PCBM

KW - butyric

KW - methyl ester

KW - c60

KW - fullerenes

U2 - 10.1088/0957-4484/19/03/035203

DO - 10.1088/0957-4484/19/03/035203

M3 - Article

VL - 19

JO - Nanotechnology

JF - Nanotechnology

SN - 0957-4484

IS - 3

M1 - 035203

ER -