Organic memory using [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: Morphology, thickness and concentration dependence studies

Jayanta K. Baral (Corresponding Author), Himadri S. Majumdar, Ari Laiho, Hua Jiang, Esko I. Kauppinen, Robin H. A. Ras, Janne Ruokolainen, Olli Ikkala, Ronald Österbacka (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


We report a simple memory device in which the fullerene-derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) mixed with inert polystyrene (PS) matrix is sandwiched between two aluminum (Al) electrodes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of PCBM:PS films showed well controlled morphology without forming any aggregates at low weight percentages (<10 wt%) of PCBM in PS. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the device cross-sections indicated that the thermal evaporation of the Al electrodes did not lead to the inclusion of Al metal nanoparticles into the active PCBM:PS film. Above a threshold voltage of <3 V, independent of thickness, a consistent negative differential resistance (NDR) is observed in devices in the thickness range from 200 to 350 nm made from solutions with 4–10 wt% of PCBM in PS. We found that the threshold voltage (Vth) for switching from the high-impedance state to the low-impedance state, the voltage at maximum current density (Vmax) and the voltage at minimum current density (Vmin) in the NDR regime are constant within this thickness range. The current density ratio at Vmax and Vmin is more than or equal to 10, increasing with thickness. Furthermore, the current density is exponentially dependent on the longest tunneling jump between two PCBM molecules, suggesting a tunneling mechanism between individual PCBM molecules. This is further supported with temperature independent NDR down to 240 K.
Original languageEnglish
Article number035203
Number of pages7
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2008
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • organic memory
  • organic electronics
  • PCBM
  • butyric
  • methyl ester
  • c60
  • fullerenes


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