The leaderless bacteriocin Garvicin KS (GarKS) is a potent antimicrobial, being active against a wide range of important pathogens. GarKS production by the native producer Lactococcus garvieae KS1546 is, however, relatively low (80 BU/ml) under standard laboratory growth conditions (batch culture in GM17 at 30°C). To improve the production, we systematically evaluated the impact of different media and media components on bacteriocin production. Based on the outcomes, a new medium formulation was made that increased GarKS production about 60-fold compared to that achieved in GM17. The new medium was composed of pasteurized milk and tryptone (PM-T). GarKS production was increased further 4-fold (i.e., to 20,000 BU/ml) by increasing the gene dose of the bacteriocin gene cluster (gak) in the native producer. Finally, a combination of the newly composed medium (PM-T), an increased gene dose and cultivation at a constant pH 6 and a 50–60% dissolved oxygen level in growth medium, gave rise to a GarKS production of 164,000 BU/ml. This high production, which is about 2000-fold higher compared to that initially achieved in GM17, corresponds to a GarKS production of 1.2 g/L. To our knowledge, this is one of the highest bacteriocin production reported hitherto.
Telke, A. A., Ovchinnikov, K. V., Vuoristo, K., Mathiesen, G., Torstensen, T., & Diep, D. B. (2019). Over 2000-fold increased production of the leaderless bacteriocin garvicin KS by increasing gene dose and optimization of culture conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10, 389. . https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00389