Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting

Annika Wilhelmson (Corresponding Author), Arja Laitila, Arvi Vilpola, Juhani Olkku, Erja Kotaviita, Kurt Fagerstedt, Silja Home

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The steep water is generally aerated in industrial barley malting. However, it is questionable whether oxygen actually reaches the embryo, which remains entrapped under the husk, testa, and pericarp until chitting occurs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether barley embryos experience oxygen deficiency during steeping, and whether various steeping conditions affect the oxygen deficiency. Alcohol dehydrogenase Adh2 was induced in all steeping conditions studied. Therefore, oxygen deficiency occurred regardless of the steeping conditions. However, steeping conditions affected the rate of recovery from oxygen deficiency, germination rate, and onset of α-amylase production. When barley was subjected to oxygen deficiency by applying N2 gas during steeping, the timing of the treatment determined its effects. The importance of aeration increased as the process proceeded. Oxygen deprivation at the beginning of the process had little effect on malt quality. Therefore, the timing of aeration is important in the optimization of germination during the steeping stage of malting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-416
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume54
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

malting
Hordeum
soaking
Hordeum vulgare
hypoxia
barley
Oxygen
Germination
Embryonic Structures
aeration
Alcohol Dehydrogenase
Amylases
germination
oxygen
malting barley
alcohol dehydrogenase
malt
Gases
pericarp
Hypoxia

Keywords

  • Hordeum vulgare
  • Poaceae
  • barley
  • germination
  • steeping
  • oxygen deficiency
  • alcohol dehydrogenase
  • ethanol detection

Cite this

Wilhelmson, A., Laitila, A., Vilpola, A., Olkku, J., Kotaviita, E., Fagerstedt, K., & Home, S. (2006). Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(2), 409-416. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0521505
Wilhelmson, Annika ; Laitila, Arja ; Vilpola, Arvi ; Olkku, Juhani ; Kotaviita, Erja ; Fagerstedt, Kurt ; Home, Silja. / Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting. In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006 ; Vol. 54, No. 2. pp. 409-416.
@article{b7afd45ab5e5487ca2cebcfd85a81b69,
title = "Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting",
abstract = "The steep water is generally aerated in industrial barley malting. However, it is questionable whether oxygen actually reaches the embryo, which remains entrapped under the husk, testa, and pericarp until chitting occurs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether barley embryos experience oxygen deficiency during steeping, and whether various steeping conditions affect the oxygen deficiency. Alcohol dehydrogenase Adh2 was induced in all steeping conditions studied. Therefore, oxygen deficiency occurred regardless of the steeping conditions. However, steeping conditions affected the rate of recovery from oxygen deficiency, germination rate, and onset of α-amylase production. When barley was subjected to oxygen deficiency by applying N2 gas during steeping, the timing of the treatment determined its effects. The importance of aeration increased as the process proceeded. Oxygen deprivation at the beginning of the process had little effect on malt quality. Therefore, the timing of aeration is important in the optimization of germination during the steeping stage of malting.",
keywords = "Hordeum vulgare, Poaceae, barley, germination, steeping, oxygen deficiency, alcohol dehydrogenase, ethanol detection",
author = "Annika Wilhelmson and Arja Laitila and Arvi Vilpola and Juhani Olkku and Erja Kotaviita and Kurt Fagerstedt and Silja Home",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1021/jf0521505",
language = "English",
volume = "54",
pages = "409--416",
journal = "Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry",
issn = "0021-8561",
publisher = "American Chemical Society ACS",
number = "2",

}

Wilhelmson, A, Laitila, A, Vilpola, A, Olkku, J, Kotaviita, E, Fagerstedt, K & Home, S 2006, 'Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting', Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 409-416. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0521505

Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting. / Wilhelmson, Annika (Corresponding Author); Laitila, Arja; Vilpola, Arvi; Olkku, Juhani; Kotaviita, Erja; Fagerstedt, Kurt; Home, Silja.

In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 54, No. 2, 2006, p. 409-416.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting

AU - Wilhelmson, Annika

AU - Laitila, Arja

AU - Vilpola, Arvi

AU - Olkku, Juhani

AU - Kotaviita, Erja

AU - Fagerstedt, Kurt

AU - Home, Silja

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - The steep water is generally aerated in industrial barley malting. However, it is questionable whether oxygen actually reaches the embryo, which remains entrapped under the husk, testa, and pericarp until chitting occurs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether barley embryos experience oxygen deficiency during steeping, and whether various steeping conditions affect the oxygen deficiency. Alcohol dehydrogenase Adh2 was induced in all steeping conditions studied. Therefore, oxygen deficiency occurred regardless of the steeping conditions. However, steeping conditions affected the rate of recovery from oxygen deficiency, germination rate, and onset of α-amylase production. When barley was subjected to oxygen deficiency by applying N2 gas during steeping, the timing of the treatment determined its effects. The importance of aeration increased as the process proceeded. Oxygen deprivation at the beginning of the process had little effect on malt quality. Therefore, the timing of aeration is important in the optimization of germination during the steeping stage of malting.

AB - The steep water is generally aerated in industrial barley malting. However, it is questionable whether oxygen actually reaches the embryo, which remains entrapped under the husk, testa, and pericarp until chitting occurs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether barley embryos experience oxygen deficiency during steeping, and whether various steeping conditions affect the oxygen deficiency. Alcohol dehydrogenase Adh2 was induced in all steeping conditions studied. Therefore, oxygen deficiency occurred regardless of the steeping conditions. However, steeping conditions affected the rate of recovery from oxygen deficiency, germination rate, and onset of α-amylase production. When barley was subjected to oxygen deficiency by applying N2 gas during steeping, the timing of the treatment determined its effects. The importance of aeration increased as the process proceeded. Oxygen deprivation at the beginning of the process had little effect on malt quality. Therefore, the timing of aeration is important in the optimization of germination during the steeping stage of malting.

KW - Hordeum vulgare

KW - Poaceae

KW - barley

KW - germination

KW - steeping

KW - oxygen deficiency

KW - alcohol dehydrogenase

KW - ethanol detection

U2 - 10.1021/jf0521505

DO - 10.1021/jf0521505

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 409

EP - 416

JO - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

JF - Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

SN - 0021-8561

IS - 2

ER -

Wilhelmson A, Laitila A, Vilpola A, Olkku J, Kotaviita E, Fagerstedt K et al. Oxygen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain during malting. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2006;54(2):409-416. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0521505