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This study presents the optimization and tuning of a simulation framework to improve its simulation accuracy while evaluating the energy utilization of electric buses under various mission scenarios. The simulation framework was developed using the low fidelity (Lo-Fi) model of the forward-facing electric bus (e-bus) powertrain to achieve the fast simulation speeds necessary for real-time fleet simulations. The measurement data required to verify the proper tuning of the simulation framework is provided by the bus original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and taken from the various demonstrations of 12 m and 18 m buses in the cities of Barcelona, Gothenburg, and Osnabruck. We investigate the different methodologies applied for the tuning process, including empirical and optimization. In the empirical methodology, the standard driving cycles that have been used in previous studies to simulate various use case (UC) scenarios are replaced with actual driving cycles derived from measurement data from buses traversing their respective routes. The key outputs, including the energy requirements, total cost of ownership (TCO), and impact on the grid are statistically compared. In the optimization scenario, the assumptions for the various vehicle and mission parameters are tuned to increase the correlation between the simulation and measurement outputs (the battery SoC profile), for the given scenario input (the velocity profile). Improved simple optimization (iSOPT) was used to provide a superfast optimization process to tune the passenger load in the bus, cabin setpoint temperature, battery’s age as relative capacity degradation (RCD), SoC cutoff point between constant current (CC) and constant voltage charging (CV), charge decay factor used in CV charging, charging power, and cutoff in initial velocity during braking for which regenerative braking is activated.
|Journal||Applied Sciences (Switzerland)|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 2023|
|MoE publication type||A1 Journal article-refereed|
- digital twins
- e-bus powertrain
- tuning and optimization
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ASSURED: fASt and Smart charging solutions for full size URban hEavy Duty applications
Pihlatie, M., Ranta, M., Farzam Far, M. & Paakkinen, M.
1/10/17 → 31/03/22