Participatory surface algal bloom monitoring in Finland in 2011-2013

Ville Kotovirta (Corresponding Author), Timo Toivanen, M. Järvinen, M. Lindholm, K. Kallio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background

Algal mass occurrences are one of the most distinguishing effects of eutrophication in lakes and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Algal bloom occurrence in water bodies varies greatly in terms of both space and time, even during short periods, which makes reliable monitoring of blooms difficult. In this paper, we explore the possibilities to extend the sensor network both spatially and temporally by applying participatory sensing to surface algal bloom monitoring in Finnish lakes and the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.

Results

Two participatory sensing systems were used to collect visual algae observations by citizens: the mobile phone application Levävahti (Algae Watch) and the collaborative web service Järviwiki (Lake wiki), during the summers of 2011–2013. Citizen observations were compared with the visual observations performed by trained expert observers, and mean correlations between citizen and expert observations were calculated using the bootstrapping method: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.53 0.86]; 0.65, 95% CI [0.35 0.86]; and 0.56, 95% CI [0.29 0.76] for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.

Conclusions

Surface algal bloom monitoring is needed to obtain data on algal bloom frequency and intensity, in particular in lakes where the use of satellite remote sensing has limitations and/or phytoplankton monitoring is infrequent or totally lacking. The correlations between expert and citizen observations suggest that citizen observers can provide additional information to support algal bloom monitoring of inland and coastal waters.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Systems Research
Volume3
Issue number24
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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algal bloom
monitoring
confidence interval
lake
coastal water
alga
bootstrapping
eutrophication
phytoplankton
citizen
sensor
remote sensing
summer

Cite this

Kotovirta, Ville ; Toivanen, Timo ; Järvinen, M. ; Lindholm, M. ; Kallio, K. / Participatory surface algal bloom monitoring in Finland in 2011-2013. In: Environmental Systems Research. 2014 ; Vol. 3, No. 24.
@article{c5ee96ca144f48d3828ebb59c0631dd0,
title = "Participatory surface algal bloom monitoring in Finland in 2011-2013",
abstract = "BackgroundAlgal mass occurrences are one of the most distinguishing effects of eutrophication in lakes and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Algal bloom occurrence in water bodies varies greatly in terms of both space and time, even during short periods, which makes reliable monitoring of blooms difficult. In this paper, we explore the possibilities to extend the sensor network both spatially and temporally by applying participatory sensing to surface algal bloom monitoring in Finnish lakes and the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.ResultsTwo participatory sensing systems were used to collect visual algae observations by citizens: the mobile phone application Lev{\"a}vahti (Algae Watch) and the collaborative web service J{\"a}rviwiki (Lake wiki), during the summers of 2011–2013. Citizen observations were compared with the visual observations performed by trained expert observers, and mean correlations between citizen and expert observations were calculated using the bootstrapping method: 0.72, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) [0.53 0.86]; 0.65, 95{\%} CI [0.35 0.86]; and 0.56, 95{\%} CI [0.29 0.76] for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.ConclusionsSurface algal bloom monitoring is needed to obtain data on algal bloom frequency and intensity, in particular in lakes where the use of satellite remote sensing has limitations and/or phytoplankton monitoring is infrequent or totally lacking. The correlations between expert and citizen observations suggest that citizen observers can provide additional information to support algal bloom monitoring of inland and coastal waters.",
author = "Ville Kotovirta and Timo Toivanen and M. J{\"a}rvinen and M. Lindholm and K. Kallio",
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Participatory surface algal bloom monitoring in Finland in 2011-2013. / Kotovirta, Ville (Corresponding Author); Toivanen, Timo; Järvinen, M.; Lindholm, M.; Kallio, K.

In: Environmental Systems Research, Vol. 3, No. 24, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Participatory surface algal bloom monitoring in Finland in 2011-2013

AU - Kotovirta, Ville

AU - Toivanen, Timo

AU - Järvinen, M.

AU - Lindholm, M.

AU - Kallio, K.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - BackgroundAlgal mass occurrences are one of the most distinguishing effects of eutrophication in lakes and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Algal bloom occurrence in water bodies varies greatly in terms of both space and time, even during short periods, which makes reliable monitoring of blooms difficult. In this paper, we explore the possibilities to extend the sensor network both spatially and temporally by applying participatory sensing to surface algal bloom monitoring in Finnish lakes and the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.ResultsTwo participatory sensing systems were used to collect visual algae observations by citizens: the mobile phone application Levävahti (Algae Watch) and the collaborative web service Järviwiki (Lake wiki), during the summers of 2011–2013. Citizen observations were compared with the visual observations performed by trained expert observers, and mean correlations between citizen and expert observations were calculated using the bootstrapping method: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.53 0.86]; 0.65, 95% CI [0.35 0.86]; and 0.56, 95% CI [0.29 0.76] for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.ConclusionsSurface algal bloom monitoring is needed to obtain data on algal bloom frequency and intensity, in particular in lakes where the use of satellite remote sensing has limitations and/or phytoplankton monitoring is infrequent or totally lacking. The correlations between expert and citizen observations suggest that citizen observers can provide additional information to support algal bloom monitoring of inland and coastal waters.

AB - BackgroundAlgal mass occurrences are one of the most distinguishing effects of eutrophication in lakes and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. Algal bloom occurrence in water bodies varies greatly in terms of both space and time, even during short periods, which makes reliable monitoring of blooms difficult. In this paper, we explore the possibilities to extend the sensor network both spatially and temporally by applying participatory sensing to surface algal bloom monitoring in Finnish lakes and the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea.ResultsTwo participatory sensing systems were used to collect visual algae observations by citizens: the mobile phone application Levävahti (Algae Watch) and the collaborative web service Järviwiki (Lake wiki), during the summers of 2011–2013. Citizen observations were compared with the visual observations performed by trained expert observers, and mean correlations between citizen and expert observations were calculated using the bootstrapping method: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.53 0.86]; 0.65, 95% CI [0.35 0.86]; and 0.56, 95% CI [0.29 0.76] for the years 2011, 2012 and 2013.ConclusionsSurface algal bloom monitoring is needed to obtain data on algal bloom frequency and intensity, in particular in lakes where the use of satellite remote sensing has limitations and/or phytoplankton monitoring is infrequent or totally lacking. The correlations between expert and citizen observations suggest that citizen observers can provide additional information to support algal bloom monitoring of inland and coastal waters.

U2 - 10.1186/s40068-014-0024-8

DO - 10.1186/s40068-014-0024-8

M3 - Article

VL - 3

JO - Environmental Systems Research

JF - Environmental Systems Research

SN - 2193-2697

IS - 24

ER -