Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions

Leonidas Ntziachristos, Erkka Saukko, Kati Lehtoranta, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Pauli Simonen, Panu Karjalainen, Jorma Keskinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25% and 75% load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)456-465
JournalFuel
Volume186
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Fingerprint

Marine engines
Dilution
Fuel Oils
Diesel engines
Residual fuels
Sampling
Fuel oils
Ashes
Soot
Ventilation exhausts
Oils
Ships
Nucleation
Aging of materials
Cooling
Air

Keywords

  • marine emissions
  • heavy fuel oil
  • light fuel oil
  • particle emissions
  • soot particles

Cite this

Ntziachristos, Leonidas ; Saukko, Erkka ; Lehtoranta, Kati ; Rönkkö, Topi ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Simonen, Pauli ; Karjalainen, Panu ; Keskinen, Jorma. / Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions. In: Fuel. 2016 ; Vol. 186. pp. 456-465.
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title = "Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions",
abstract = "Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25{\%} and 75{\%} load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.",
keywords = "marine emissions, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, particle emissions, soot particles",
author = "Leonidas Ntziachristos and Erkka Saukko and Kati Lehtoranta and Topi R{\"o}nkk{\"o} and Hilkka Timonen and Pauli Simonen and Panu Karjalainen and Jorma Keskinen",
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doi = "10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091",
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Ntziachristos, L, Saukko, E, Lehtoranta, K, Rönkkö, T, Timonen, H, Simonen, P, Karjalainen, P & Keskinen, J 2016, 'Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions', Fuel, vol. 186, pp. 456-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091

Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions. / Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Saukko, Erkka; Lehtoranta, Kati; Rönkkö, Topi; Timonen, Hilkka; Simonen, Pauli; Karjalainen, Panu; Keskinen, Jorma.

In: Fuel, Vol. 186, 2016, p. 456-465.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions

AU - Ntziachristos, Leonidas

AU - Saukko, Erkka

AU - Lehtoranta, Kati

AU - Rönkkö, Topi

AU - Timonen, Hilkka

AU - Simonen, Pauli

AU - Karjalainen, Panu

AU - Keskinen, Jorma

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25% and 75% load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.

AB - Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25% and 75% load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.

KW - marine emissions

KW - heavy fuel oil

KW - light fuel oil

KW - particle emissions

KW - soot particles

U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091

DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091

M3 - Article

VL - 186

SP - 456

EP - 465

JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

ER -