Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions

Leonidas Ntziachristos, Erkka Saukko, Kati Lehtoranta, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Pauli Simonen, Panu Karjalainen, Jorma Keskinen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    16 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25% and 75% load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)456-465
    JournalFuel
    Volume186
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Fingerprint

    Marine engines
    Dilution
    Fuel Oils
    Diesel engines
    Residual fuels
    Sampling
    Fuel oils
    Ashes
    Soot
    Ventilation exhausts
    Oils
    Ships
    Nucleation
    Aging of materials
    Cooling
    Air

    Keywords

    • marine emissions
    • heavy fuel oil
    • light fuel oil
    • particle emissions
    • soot particles

    Cite this

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas ; Saukko, Erkka ; Lehtoranta, Kati ; Rönkkö, Topi ; Timonen, Hilkka ; Simonen, Pauli ; Karjalainen, Panu ; Keskinen, Jorma. / Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions. In: Fuel. 2016 ; Vol. 186. pp. 456-465.
    @article{30857044704f489180c3643ca445b042,
    title = "Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions",
    abstract = "Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25{\%} and 75{\%} load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.",
    keywords = "marine emissions, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, particle emissions, soot particles",
    author = "Leonidas Ntziachristos and Erkka Saukko and Kati Lehtoranta and Topi R{\"o}nkk{\"o} and Hilkka Timonen and Pauli Simonen and Panu Karjalainen and Jorma Keskinen",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091",
    language = "English",
    volume = "186",
    pages = "456--465",
    journal = "Fuel",
    issn = "0016-2361",
    publisher = "Elsevier",

    }

    Ntziachristos, L, Saukko, E, Lehtoranta, K, Rönkkö, T, Timonen, H, Simonen, P, Karjalainen, P & Keskinen, J 2016, 'Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions', Fuel, vol. 186, pp. 456-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091

    Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions. / Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Saukko, Erkka; Lehtoranta, Kati; Rönkkö, Topi; Timonen, Hilkka; Simonen, Pauli; Karjalainen, Panu; Keskinen, Jorma.

    In: Fuel, Vol. 186, 2016, p. 456-465.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Particle emissions characterization from a medium-speed marine diesel engine with two fuels at different sampling conditions

    AU - Ntziachristos, Leonidas

    AU - Saukko, Erkka

    AU - Lehtoranta, Kati

    AU - Rönkkö, Topi

    AU - Timonen, Hilkka

    AU - Simonen, Pauli

    AU - Karjalainen, Panu

    AU - Keskinen, Jorma

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25% and 75% load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.

    AB - Particle emission characteristics for a medium-speed four-stroke marine diesel engine were studied using a variety of sampling systems. Measurements were conducted at 25% and 75% load employing a heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a lighter marine distillate oil. The measurements, especially with HFO, revealed that marine exhaust particles mostly consist of nanometer sized ash particles on which heavy volatile species condense during exhaust dilution and cooling. The soot mode number concentration was low with both fuels tested, in particular when HFO was used. Total particle number emissions ranged in the order of 5.2-6.9 * 1015 per kg of fuel and formed a monomodal size distribution when a porous tube diluter combined with an ageing chamber and operating at low dilution ratio was used for sampling. The levels and size distributions obtained in the lab using a porous tube diluter were similar to the ones reported in the literature studying ship plumes following atmospheric dilution. Lab measurements with ejector-type diluters mostly led to bi-modal distributions that did not well resemble atmospheric size distributions. Moreover, the nucleation mode formed with the ejector diluters was variable in size and concentration. When used with dilution air at ambient temperature, ejector diluters were inappropriate for primary dilution due to clogging.

    KW - marine emissions

    KW - heavy fuel oil

    KW - light fuel oil

    KW - particle emissions

    KW - soot particles

    U2 - 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091

    DO - 10.1016/j.fuel.2016.08.091

    M3 - Article

    VL - 186

    SP - 456

    EP - 465

    JO - Fuel

    JF - Fuel

    SN - 0016-2361

    ER -