Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions

Sebastian Oeder, Tamara Kanashova, Olli Sippula, Sean C. Sapcariu, Thorsten Streibel, Jose Manuel Arteaga-Salas, Johannes Passig, Marco Dilger, Hanns-Rudolf Paur, Christoph Schlager, Sonja Mülhopt, Silvia Diabaté, Carsten Weiss, Benjamin Stengel, Rom Rabe, Horst Harndorf, Tiina Torvela, Jorma K. Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen, et al

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Abstract

Background: Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives: To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods: Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results: The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot"). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions: Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of carbonaceous soot in the ship emissions by implementation of filtration devices.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0126536
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Fuel Oils
fuel oils
Gasoline
Residual fuels
animal transport
diesel fuel
Particulate Matter
Fuel oils
Diesel fuels
Freight transportation
Soot
particulates
Ships
lungs
Lung
ships
Oxidative stress
Poisons
cells
Aerosols

Cite this

Oeder, Sebastian ; Kanashova, Tamara ; Sippula, Olli ; Sapcariu, Sean C. ; Streibel, Thorsten ; Arteaga-Salas, Jose Manuel ; Passig, Johannes ; Dilger, Marco ; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf ; Schlager, Christoph ; Mülhopt, Sonja ; Diabaté, Silvia ; Weiss, Carsten ; Stengel, Benjamin ; Rabe, Rom ; Harndorf, Horst ; Torvela, Tiina ; Jokiniemi, Jorma K. ; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta ; al, et. / Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions. In: PLoS ONE. 2015 ; Vol. 10, No. 6.
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title = "Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions",
abstract = "Background: Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives: To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods: Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results: The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ({"}soot{"}). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions: Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of carbonaceous soot in the ship emissions by implementation of filtration devices.",
author = "Sebastian Oeder and Tamara Kanashova and Olli Sippula and Sapcariu, {Sean C.} and Thorsten Streibel and Arteaga-Salas, {Jose Manuel} and Johannes Passig and Marco Dilger and Hanns-Rudolf Paur and Christoph Schlager and Sonja M{\"u}lhopt and Silvia Diabat{\'e} and Carsten Weiss and Benjamin Stengel and Rom Rabe and Horst Harndorf and Tiina Torvela and Jokiniemi, {Jorma K.} and Maija-Riitta Hirvonen and et al",
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Oeder, S, Kanashova, T, Sippula, O, Sapcariu, SC, Streibel, T, Arteaga-Salas, JM, Passig, J, Dilger, M, Paur, H-R, Schlager, C, Mülhopt, S, Diabaté, S, Weiss, C, Stengel, B, Rabe, R, Harndorf, H, Torvela, T, Jokiniemi, JK, Hirvonen, M-R & al, E 2015, 'Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions', PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 6, e0126536. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126536

Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions. / Oeder, Sebastian; Kanashova, Tamara; Sippula, Olli; Sapcariu, Sean C.; Streibel, Thorsten; Arteaga-Salas, Jose Manuel; Passig, Johannes; Dilger, Marco; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Schlager, Christoph; Mülhopt, Sonja; Diabaté, Silvia; Weiss, Carsten; Stengel, Benjamin; Rabe, Rom; Harndorf, Horst; Torvela, Tiina; Jokiniemi, Jorma K.; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; al, et.

In: PLoS ONE, Vol. 10, No. 6, e0126536, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions

AU - Oeder, Sebastian

AU - Kanashova, Tamara

AU - Sippula, Olli

AU - Sapcariu, Sean C.

AU - Streibel, Thorsten

AU - Arteaga-Salas, Jose Manuel

AU - Passig, Johannes

AU - Dilger, Marco

AU - Paur, Hanns-Rudolf

AU - Schlager, Christoph

AU - Mülhopt, Sonja

AU - Diabaté, Silvia

AU - Weiss, Carsten

AU - Stengel, Benjamin

AU - Rabe, Rom

AU - Harndorf, Horst

AU - Torvela, Tiina

AU - Jokiniemi, Jorma K.

AU - Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

AU - al, et

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Background: Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives: To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods: Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results: The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot"). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions: Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of carbonaceous soot in the ship emissions by implementation of filtration devices.

AB - Background: Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling. Objectives: To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols. Methods: Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses. Results: The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot"). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification. Conclusions: Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of carbonaceous soot in the ship emissions by implementation of filtration devices.

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0126536

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0126536

M3 - Article

VL - 10

JO - PLoS ONE

JF - PLoS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 6

M1 - e0126536

ER -