PCDD/F emissions from co-combustion of RDF with peat, wood waste and coal in FBC boilers

Juha Huotari, Raili Vesterinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


The use of refuse derived fuel (RDF) as additional fuel in multifuel fluidized bed boilers (FBC) is a promising way for rational waste management. Several combustion experiments using RDF as additional fuel have been carried out in the research program of combustion and gasification technologies in Finland under the title Liekki 2.

The size of fluidized bed combustors used in these experiments ranged from 15 kWth up to 117 MWth. The chlorine content of fuel rose up to 0.35% as a measured dry base (db). The emissions of the toxic PCDD/F compounds were found to follow fuel-Cl content trendwise, as expected. However, quantitatively the relative emission levels varied with the factor of 103 at the same Cl- content in fuel. Using statistical analysis correlations between PCDD/F emissions and combustion conditions (Tg, CO etc.) as well as fuel and ash properties were found.

Most of the earlier measurements in commercial plants have been conducted usually after an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which has made it difficult to relate emission results to corresponding combustion conditions. According to the laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor (15 kWth) using normal (primary and secondary) and staged (primary + secondary + tertiary) combustion air feeding, it was found that in the staged condition (higher vertical temperature profile) the total amount of PCDD/F compounds (gas and particles) decreased, but the amount of PCDD/F in solid phase increased.

Although the required European emission level of PCDD/F (0.1 ng/m3n I-TEQ, in 11% O2) can be achieved, the detailed formation and destruction mechanisms of PCDD/F in combustion conditions are not known well enough for quantitative determination of the emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalHazardous Waste and Hazardous Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1996
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • cocombustion
  • fluidized bed combustion
  • fluidized beds
  • refuse derived fuels
  • municipal solid waste
  • RDF
  • peat
  • wood fuels
  • wood wastes
  • coal
  • dibenzodioxins
  • dibenzofurans


Dive into the research topics of 'PCDD/F emissions from co-combustion of RDF with peat, wood waste and coal in FBC boilers'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this