Recent years have seen an increased interest in navigational services for pedestrians. To ensure that these services are successful, it is necessary to understand the information requirements of pedestrians when navigating, and in particular, what information they need and how it is used. A requirements study was undertaken to identify these information requirements within an urban navigation context. Results show that landmarks were by far the most predominant navigation cue, that distance information and street names were infrequently used, and that information is used to enable navigation decisions, but also to enhance the pedestrian’s confidence and trust. The implications for the design of pedestrian navigation aids are highlighted.
May, A., Ross, T., Bayer, S., & Tarkiainen, M. (2003). Pedestrian navigation aids: Information requirements and design implications. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 7(6), 331-338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-003-0248-5