Perceived eating difficulties and preferences for various textures of raw and cooked carrots in young and elderly subjects

Katariina Roininen, Laurence Fillion, David Kilcast, Liisa Lähteenmäki (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The aim of the study was to determine how those texture attributes that elderly people find difficult to eat are related to their preferences for different modifications of carrot textures. This study was conducted with same methods in Finland and in the United Kingdom (UK). Trained sensory panels in both countries described sensory profiles of a range of carrot samples with same glossary of texture terms. The texture of carrot samples was manipulated using different preparation and cooking methods. Based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), boiled and puréed samples were perceived as soft, wet, pulpy and smooth, whereas raw samples were dry, brittle, rough, crispy and crunchy. Two age groups were used for the consumer tests: a young adult group aged 23 to 40 years, mean 32 (Finland) and 33 (UK) and an elderly group aged over 60 years, mean 75 (Finland) and 76 (UK). Both the elderly and young adult respondents considered samples as difficult to eat if they needed a long chewing time, were crunchy, hard, brittle, dry, rough or sharp, such as raw slices and coarsely grated samples. On the other hand, slimy, wet, smooth, soft and pulpy samples, such as boiled carrots and purée, were considered as easy‐to‐eat. The young adults liked more difficult textures such as rough, crispy, crunchy and hard than did the elderly respondents, but the easiest textures were not liked by either age group. Subjects with dental deficiencies liked easier textures more than those fully dentate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-451
JournalJournal of Sensory Studies
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2003
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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