Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options

Jukka Nuottimäki, Juhani Laurikko, Nils-Olof Nylund

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

Abstract

Road transport needs de-carbonising actions, but no single solution can solve this challenge. Therefore, multiple technologies must be entertained to find the best-suited alternatives for each given set of boundary conditions. Engine downsizing, dieselization and hybridization contribute to fuel efficiency. Renewable energy can be introduced either through biofuels or electricity from renewable sources to further reduce CO2 emissions. There are numerous individual vehicle types, makes and models, thus the evaluation of future options is challenging. This project aims to deliver first-hand primary data for this kind of evaluations, and improve possibilities to make right-kind of choices among available options.

This study demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from fuel, engine type and size. The core of the evaluation consists of benchmarking a set of passenger cars (“vehicle platforms”) of such make and model that offer multiple choices for engine, i.e. gasoline, flex-fuel (E85), diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hybrid or EV variations. In addition, the project also demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from engine type and size. Chassis dynamometer testing provides data on the end-use performance of alternative vehicles. The upstream well-to-tank data for various fuel options is collected by a literature survey.

Findings of this study show that while the choice of vehicles engine type and size determines much of the energy consumption of the vehicle, fuel properties still have a major effect on both energy efficiency and tailpipe emissions. Battery electric vehicle was found to be the most energy efficient alternative on all driving situations while the high powered gasoline engine was the worst. The tank-to-wheel (TTW) energy consumption of this upper middle class vehicle was roughly 2.3 to 4.7 times higher on high power gasoline engine than on battery electric vehicle. The maximum power of the engine and the engine type has also an effect to the energy consumption of the vehicle. The powerful gasoline engine consumed some 23 % to 33 % more energy than the moderately powered version. The results of the diesel vehicles support this finding, although the energy efficiency difference between powerful and moderately powered diesel versions was smaller. However, well-to-tank (WTT) properties of the fuel have a significant influence to well-to-wheel (WTW) results, which needs to be considered. The TTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was roughly 1.6 to 1, while the WTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was some 4 to 1.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFISITA World Automotive Congress 2014
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of a meeting held 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht, The Netherlands
PublisherRoyal Netherlands Society of Engineers
Pages1073-1081
ISBN (Print)978-1-5108-0209-4
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeB3 Non-refereed article in conference proceedings
EventFISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress: Intelligent transport to solve our future mobility, safety and environmental challenges - Maastricht, Netherlands
Duration: 2 Jun 20146 Jun 2014

Conference

ConferenceFISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress
CountryNetherlands
CityMaastricht
Period2/06/146/06/14

Fingerprint

Passenger cars
Engines
Gasoline
Wheels
Energy utilization
Energy efficiency
Compressed natural gas
Dynamometers
Chassis
Liquefied petroleum gas
Benchmarking
Biofuels
Diesel fuels
Electricity
Boundary conditions

Keywords

  • alternative fuels
  • energy efficiency
  • propulsion system
  • exhaust emission
  • well-to-wheels

Cite this

Nuottimäki, J., Laurikko, J., & Nylund, N-O. (2014). Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options. In FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Proceedings of a meeting held 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht, The Netherlands (pp. 1073-1081). Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers.
Nuottimäki, Jukka ; Laurikko, Juhani ; Nylund, Nils-Olof. / Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options. FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Proceedings of a meeting held 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers, 2014. pp. 1073-1081
@inproceedings{3d6f695219ee4aab83bb40e673bd0198,
title = "Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options",
abstract = "Road transport needs de-carbonising actions, but no single solution can solve this challenge. Therefore, multiple technologies must be entertained to find the best-suited alternatives for each given set of boundary conditions. Engine downsizing, dieselization and hybridization contribute to fuel efficiency. Renewable energy can be introduced either through biofuels or electricity from renewable sources to further reduce CO2 emissions. There are numerous individual vehicle types, makes and models, thus the evaluation of future options is challenging. This project aims to deliver first-hand primary data for this kind of evaluations, and improve possibilities to make right-kind of choices among available options.This study demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from fuel, engine type and size. The core of the evaluation consists of benchmarking a set of passenger cars (“vehicle platforms”) of such make and model that offer multiple choices for engine, i.e. gasoline, flex-fuel (E85), diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hybrid or EV variations. In addition, the project also demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from engine type and size. Chassis dynamometer testing provides data on the end-use performance of alternative vehicles. The upstream well-to-tank data for various fuel options is collected by a literature survey.Findings of this study show that while the choice of vehicles engine type and size determines much of the energy consumption of the vehicle, fuel properties still have a major effect on both energy efficiency and tailpipe emissions. Battery electric vehicle was found to be the most energy efficient alternative on all driving situations while the high powered gasoline engine was the worst. The tank-to-wheel (TTW) energy consumption of this upper middle class vehicle was roughly 2.3 to 4.7 times higher on high power gasoline engine than on battery electric vehicle. The maximum power of the engine and the engine type has also an effect to the energy consumption of the vehicle. The powerful gasoline engine consumed some 23 {\%} to 33 {\%} more energy than the moderately powered version. The results of the diesel vehicles support this finding, although the energy efficiency difference between powerful and moderately powered diesel versions was smaller. However, well-to-tank (WTT) properties of the fuel have a significant influence to well-to-wheel (WTW) results, which needs to be considered. The TTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was roughly 1.6 to 1, while the WTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was some 4 to 1.",
keywords = "alternative fuels, energy efficiency, propulsion system, exhaust emission, well-to-wheels",
author = "Jukka Nuottim{\"a}ki and Juhani Laurikko and Nils-Olof Nylund",
note = "CA2: BA215 SDA: SHP: TransSmart",
year = "2014",
language = "English",
isbn = "978-1-5108-0209-4",
pages = "1073--1081",
booktitle = "FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014",
publisher = "Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers",

}

Nuottimäki, J, Laurikko, J & Nylund, N-O 2014, Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options. in FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Proceedings of a meeting held 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers, pp. 1073-1081, FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2/06/14.

Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options. / Nuottimäki, Jukka; Laurikko, Juhani; Nylund, Nils-Olof.

FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Proceedings of a meeting held 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers, 2014. p. 1073-1081.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference article in proceedingsScientific

TY - GEN

T1 - Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options

AU - Nuottimäki, Jukka

AU - Laurikko, Juhani

AU - Nylund, Nils-Olof

N1 - CA2: BA215 SDA: SHP: TransSmart

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Road transport needs de-carbonising actions, but no single solution can solve this challenge. Therefore, multiple technologies must be entertained to find the best-suited alternatives for each given set of boundary conditions. Engine downsizing, dieselization and hybridization contribute to fuel efficiency. Renewable energy can be introduced either through biofuels or electricity from renewable sources to further reduce CO2 emissions. There are numerous individual vehicle types, makes and models, thus the evaluation of future options is challenging. This project aims to deliver first-hand primary data for this kind of evaluations, and improve possibilities to make right-kind of choices among available options.This study demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from fuel, engine type and size. The core of the evaluation consists of benchmarking a set of passenger cars (“vehicle platforms”) of such make and model that offer multiple choices for engine, i.e. gasoline, flex-fuel (E85), diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hybrid or EV variations. In addition, the project also demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from engine type and size. Chassis dynamometer testing provides data on the end-use performance of alternative vehicles. The upstream well-to-tank data for various fuel options is collected by a literature survey.Findings of this study show that while the choice of vehicles engine type and size determines much of the energy consumption of the vehicle, fuel properties still have a major effect on both energy efficiency and tailpipe emissions. Battery electric vehicle was found to be the most energy efficient alternative on all driving situations while the high powered gasoline engine was the worst. The tank-to-wheel (TTW) energy consumption of this upper middle class vehicle was roughly 2.3 to 4.7 times higher on high power gasoline engine than on battery electric vehicle. The maximum power of the engine and the engine type has also an effect to the energy consumption of the vehicle. The powerful gasoline engine consumed some 23 % to 33 % more energy than the moderately powered version. The results of the diesel vehicles support this finding, although the energy efficiency difference between powerful and moderately powered diesel versions was smaller. However, well-to-tank (WTT) properties of the fuel have a significant influence to well-to-wheel (WTW) results, which needs to be considered. The TTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was roughly 1.6 to 1, while the WTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was some 4 to 1.

AB - Road transport needs de-carbonising actions, but no single solution can solve this challenge. Therefore, multiple technologies must be entertained to find the best-suited alternatives for each given set of boundary conditions. Engine downsizing, dieselization and hybridization contribute to fuel efficiency. Renewable energy can be introduced either through biofuels or electricity from renewable sources to further reduce CO2 emissions. There are numerous individual vehicle types, makes and models, thus the evaluation of future options is challenging. This project aims to deliver first-hand primary data for this kind of evaluations, and improve possibilities to make right-kind of choices among available options.This study demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from fuel, engine type and size. The core of the evaluation consists of benchmarking a set of passenger cars (“vehicle platforms”) of such make and model that offer multiple choices for engine, i.e. gasoline, flex-fuel (E85), diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hybrid or EV variations. In addition, the project also demonstrates the differences in efficiency arising from engine type and size. Chassis dynamometer testing provides data on the end-use performance of alternative vehicles. The upstream well-to-tank data for various fuel options is collected by a literature survey.Findings of this study show that while the choice of vehicles engine type and size determines much of the energy consumption of the vehicle, fuel properties still have a major effect on both energy efficiency and tailpipe emissions. Battery electric vehicle was found to be the most energy efficient alternative on all driving situations while the high powered gasoline engine was the worst. The tank-to-wheel (TTW) energy consumption of this upper middle class vehicle was roughly 2.3 to 4.7 times higher on high power gasoline engine than on battery electric vehicle. The maximum power of the engine and the engine type has also an effect to the energy consumption of the vehicle. The powerful gasoline engine consumed some 23 % to 33 % more energy than the moderately powered version. The results of the diesel vehicles support this finding, although the energy efficiency difference between powerful and moderately powered diesel versions was smaller. However, well-to-tank (WTT) properties of the fuel have a significant influence to well-to-wheel (WTW) results, which needs to be considered. The TTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was roughly 1.6 to 1, while the WTW CO2 emissions difference between the two extremes was some 4 to 1.

KW - alternative fuels

KW - energy efficiency

KW - propulsion system

KW - exhaust emission

KW - well-to-wheels

M3 - Conference article in proceedings

SN - 978-1-5108-0209-4

SP - 1073

EP - 1081

BT - FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014

PB - Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers

ER -

Nuottimäki J, Laurikko J, Nylund N-O. Performance Evaluation of Passenger Car, Fuel And Powerplant Options. In FISITA World Automotive Congress 2014: Proceedings of a meeting held 2-6 June 2014, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Royal Netherlands Society of Engineers. 2014. p. 1073-1081