Photolithographic fabrication method of computer-generated holographic interferograms

Markus Kajanto, Eero Byckling, Juha Fagerholm, Jussi Heikonen, Jari Turunen, Antti Vasara, Arto Salin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We consider the fabrication of high-quality interferogram-type diffractive optical elements with conventional photolithographic techniques and compare the results with those achievable with electron-beam lithography.
The fringes associated with the phase transfer function of the binary phase holographic interferogram are approximated with rectangles, which can be realized at submicron accuracy using a pattern generator and step-and-repeat camera.
The effects of the rectangle quantization are analyzed both numerically and experimentally with the aid of diffraction patterns produced by simple focusing elements.
Both resolution and diffraction efficiency of the best holograms approach their theoretical values
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)778-784
JournalApplied Optics
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1989
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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Diffractive optical elements
Diffraction efficiency
Electron beam lithography
rectangles
Optical resolving power
Holograms
Diffraction patterns
Transfer functions
interferometry
Cameras
Fabrication
fabrication
transfer functions
diffraction patterns
generators
lithography
cameras
electron beams
diffraction

Cite this

Kajanto, M., Byckling, E., Fagerholm, J., Heikonen, J., Turunen, J., Vasara, A., & Salin, A. (1989). Photolithographic fabrication method of computer-generated holographic interferograms. Applied Optics, 28(4), 778-784. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.28.000778
Kajanto, Markus ; Byckling, Eero ; Fagerholm, Juha ; Heikonen, Jussi ; Turunen, Jari ; Vasara, Antti ; Salin, Arto. / Photolithographic fabrication method of computer-generated holographic interferograms. In: Applied Optics. 1989 ; Vol. 28, No. 4. pp. 778-784.
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Kajanto, M, Byckling, E, Fagerholm, J, Heikonen, J, Turunen, J, Vasara, A & Salin, A 1989, 'Photolithographic fabrication method of computer-generated holographic interferograms', Applied Optics, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 778-784. https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.28.000778

Photolithographic fabrication method of computer-generated holographic interferograms. / Kajanto, Markus; Byckling, Eero; Fagerholm, Juha; Heikonen, Jussi; Turunen, Jari; Vasara, Antti; Salin, Arto.

In: Applied Optics, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1989, p. 778-784.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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AU - Kajanto, Markus

AU - Byckling, Eero

AU - Fagerholm, Juha

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AU - Turunen, Jari

AU - Vasara, Antti

AU - Salin, Arto

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AB - We consider the fabrication of high-quality interferogram-type diffractive optical elements with conventional photolithographic techniques and compare the results with those achievable with electron-beam lithography. The fringes associated with the phase transfer function of the binary phase holographic interferogram are approximated with rectangles, which can be realized at submicron accuracy using a pattern generator and step-and-repeat camera. The effects of the rectangle quantization are analyzed both numerically and experimentally with the aid of diffraction patterns produced by simple focusing elements. Both resolution and diffraction efficiency of the best holograms approach their theoretical values

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DO - 10.1364/AO.28.000778

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JO - Applied Optics

JF - Applied Optics

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