Photolithographic fabrication method of computer-generated holographic interferograms

Markus Kajanto, Eero Byckling, Juha Fagerholm, Jussi Heikonen, Jari Turunen, Antti Vasara, Arto Salin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We consider the fabrication of high-quality interferogram-type diffractive optical elements with conventional photolithographic techniques and compare the results with those achievable with electron-beam lithography. The fringes associated with the phase transfer function of the binary phase holographic interferogram are approximated with rectangles, which can be realized at submicron accuracy using a pattern generator and step-and-repeat camera. The effects of the rectangle quantization are analyzed both numerically and experimentally with the aid of diffraction patterns produced by simple focusing elements. Both resolution and diffraction efficiency of the best holograms approach their theoretical values
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)778-784
JournalApplied Optics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1989
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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